Abstract

We report the use of a pulse-width modulation drive technique for high-resolution liquid-crystal gratings and show how the grating diffraction efficiency depends on the duty cycle of the drive signal. We identify a regime in which the diffraction efficiency is linearly proportional to the duty cycle, thereby providing a linear drive characteristic.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Johnson, D. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, P. W. McOwan, J. Gourlay, Appl. Opt. 33, 2768 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Kulick, S. T. Kowel, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, R. Lindquist, P. Nasiatka, M. Jones, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2176, 2 (1994).
  4. J. H. Kulick, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, S. T. Kowel, R. G. Lindquist, M. Jones, P. Nasiatka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 73 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. G. Lindquist, J. H. Kulick, G. P. Nordin, J. M. Jarem, S. T. Kowel, M. Friends, T. M. Leslie, Opt. Lett. 19, 670 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

1994

1993

K. Johnson, D. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D. C.

Friends, M.

Gourlay, J.

Jarem, J. M.

Johnson, K.

K. Johnson, D. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M.

J. H. Kulick, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, S. T. Kowel, R. G. Lindquist, M. Jones, P. Nasiatka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kulick, S. T. Kowel, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, R. Lindquist, P. Nasiatka, M. Jones, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2176, 2 (1994).

Kowel, S. T.

Kulick, J. H.

Leslie, T. M.

Lindquist, R.

J. H. Kulick, S. T. Kowel, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, R. Lindquist, P. Nasiatka, M. Jones, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2176, 2 (1994).

Lindquist, R. G.

McKnight, D.

K. Johnson, D. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McOwan, P. W.

Nasiatka, P.

J. H. Kulick, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, S. T. Kowel, R. G. Lindquist, M. Jones, P. Nasiatka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kulick, S. T. Kowel, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, R. Lindquist, P. Nasiatka, M. Jones, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2176, 2 (1994).

Nordin, G. P.

O’Hara, A.

Parker, A.

J. H. Kulick, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, S. T. Kowel, R. G. Lindquist, M. Jones, P. Nasiatka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kulick, S. T. Kowel, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, R. Lindquist, P. Nasiatka, M. Jones, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2176, 2 (1994).

Underwood, I.

Vass, D. G.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Johnson, D. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

J. H. Kulick, S. T. Kowel, G. P. Nordin, A. Parker, R. Lindquist, P. Nasiatka, M. Jones, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2176, 2 (1994).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Grating formation in a homeotropically aligned liquid-crystal film through the use of electric fringing fields from inter digitated electrodes. E and H are the electric- and magnetic-field vectors, respectively, of the incident readout beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the PWM drive scheme. The drive signal is composed of a periodic envelope function (a) with a varying pulse width that is used to gate (b) a sinusoidal or (c) a binary carrier wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency as a function of rms voltage for Cells A and B with amplitude-modulation and PWM drive techniques.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency as a function of duty cycle for Cell A (PWM drive technique).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency as a function of duty cycle for Cell B (PWM drive technique).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction efficiency as a function of drive frequency for Cell B.

Equations (1)

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V gated - rms = [ 1 T 0 D T v 2 ( t ) d t ] 1 / 2 = D 1 / 2 V cw - rms ,

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