Abstract

We present a multichannel detection technique for three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media by using time-resolved fluorescence. By using a streak camera, we can obtain the experimental data in a single measurement. The data, analyzed by means of a triangulation algorithm, provide accurate localization of a fluorescent object for path lengths of up to 120 scattering mean free paths. The results demonstrate the feasibility of combining fluorescence spectroscopy with time-resolved optical tomography for localizing and identifying embedded objects.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. M. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 535 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 32, 574 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. S. Patterson, B. C. Chance, B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. M. Sevick, B. C. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).
  6. M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. B. Fishkin, E. Gratton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 127 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Knuttel, J. M. Schmitt, J. R. Knutson, Appl. Opt. 32, 381 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, B. Ma, Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Anderson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1205, 19 (1990).
  13. M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Nishiwaki, S. Nakamura, S. Sakaguchi, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 254 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  16. C. F. Bohran, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), App. A, p. 477.
  17. L. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Herman, A. K. Louis, F. Natterer, Mathematical Method in Tomography (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 53.

1994 (1)

L. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (6)

1992 (1)

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. M. Sevick, B. C. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

1990 (1)

S. Anderson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1205, 19 (1990).

1989 (3)

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishiwaki, S. Nakamura, S. Sakaguchi, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 254 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Chance, B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, B. Ma, Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, M. A.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

L. M. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 535 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson-Engels, S.

S. Anderson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1205, 19 (1990).

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

Boas, D. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bohran, C. F.

C. F. Bohran, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), App. A, p. 477.

Bordagaray, J. O.

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B. C.

E. M. Sevick, B. C. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

M. S. Patterson, B. C. Chance, B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordero, J.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Engelmann, G. L.

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

L. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Fishkin, J. B.

Fitzmaurice, M.

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gratton, E.

Hee, M. R.

Herman, G.

G. Herman, A. K. Louis, F. Natterer, Mathematical Method in Tomography (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 53.

Ho, P. P.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohran, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), App. A, p. 477.

Itzkan, I.

L. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Izatt, J. A.

Jacobson, J. M.

Jarlman, O.

Johansson, J.

S. Anderson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1205, 19 (1990).

Knutson, J. R.

Knuttel, A.

Kolubayev, T.

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, J. R.

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, B. Ma, Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longo, F. W.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Louis, A. K.

G. Herman, A. K. Louis, F. Natterer, Mathematical Method in Tomography (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 53.

Ma, B.

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, B. Ma, Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

Y. Nishiwaki, S. Nakamura, S. Sakaguchi, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 254 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natterer, F.

G. Herman, A. K. Louis, F. Natterer, Mathematical Method in Tomography (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 53.

Nishiwaki, Y.

Y. Nishiwaki, S. Nakamura, S. Sakaguchi, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 254 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Leary, M. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

Perelman, L.

L. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Ratliff, N. B.

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Richard-Kortum, R.

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, S.

Y. Nishiwaki, S. Nakamura, S. Sakaguchi, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 254 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Sevick, E. M.

E. M. Sevick, B. C. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

R. Berg, O. Jarlman, S. Svanberg, Appl. Opt. 32, 574 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Anderson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1205, 19 (1990).

Swanson, E. A.

Tata, D. B.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tomasheefcky, P.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. M.

Wang, Y.

J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Wilson, B. C.

Wu, J.

L. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, B. Ma, Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, B. Ma, Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Am. Heart J. (1)

M. Fitzmaurice, J. O. Bordagaray, G. L. Engelmann, R. Richard-Kortum, T. Kolubayev, M. S. Feld, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, Am. Heart J. 118, 1029 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. Cordero, P. Tomasheefcky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

Y. Nishiwaki, S. Nakamura, S. Sakaguchi, Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 254 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, B. Ma, Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

S. Anderson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1205, 19 (1990).

E. M. Sevick, B. C. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

Science (1)

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

G. Herman, A. K. Louis, F. Natterer, Mathematical Method in Tomography (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 53.

J. Wu, Y. Wang, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

C. F. Bohran, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), App. A, p. 477.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental apparatus and sample geometry. PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical eight-channel time-resolved fluorescence signal observed by the streak camera. The solid curve connects the t1/2 points of the eight channels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

t1/2 of the fluorescence signal detected by each individual fiber surrounding a beaker containing scattering media of (a) 1.8-mm and (b) 0.9-mm mfp’s, respectively, and a single embedded object. Fits using a triangulation algorithm are plotted as dashed curves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental localization of embedded fluorophores (open circles) at three locations offset by 5 mm. The actual positions are shown as filled circles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

t1/2 of the fluorescence signal detected by each individual fiber surrounding a beaker containing two embedded objects.

Equations (1)

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T n [ R 2 + r 2 - 2 r R cos ( θ - θ n ) ] 1 / 2 ,

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