Abstract

A new technique for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing is demonstrated. The approach employs two different types of photogenerated fiber grating, namely, a fiber Bragg grating and a fiber polarization-rocking filter. The method relies on the different dependencies of the fiber refractive index and birefringence on strain and temperature. Both of these measurands can be determined from the effect that they have on the resonant wavelength of each grating. The information is provided in the frequency domain, avoiding the problem of limited unambiguous signal range associated with the use of competing optical fiber interferometers.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. D. C. Jones, P. A. Leilabady, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 522, 196 (1985).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, Fiber Integr. Opt. 10, 351 (1992).
  10. M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Electron. Lett. 28, 1558 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, Fiber Integr. Opt. 10, 351 (1992).

1991 (4)

G. Z. Wang, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 27, 1843 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, S. S. J. Roberts, R. Davidson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1588, 342 (1991).

F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 234 (1991).

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1169, 98 (1989).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

J. D. C. Jones, P. A. Leilabady, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 522, 196 (1985).

M. Corke, J. D. C. Jones, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 21, 148 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Archambault, J. L.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J. N.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Corke, M.

M. Corke, J. D. C. Jones, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 21, 148 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, S. S. J. Roberts, R. Davidson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1588, 342 (1991).

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, R.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, S. S. J. Roberts, R. Davidson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1588, 342 (1991).

Dunphy, J. R.

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, Fiber Integr. Opt. 10, 351 (1992).

Farahi, F.

F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 234 (1991).

Glenn, W. H.

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1169, 98 (1989).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handerek, V. A.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 18, 1013 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Electron. Lett. 28, 1558 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Huang, S. Y.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 234 (1991).

J. D. C. Jones, P. A. Leilabady, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 522, 196 (1985).

M. Corke, J. D. C. Jones, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 21, 148 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

M. Corke, J. D. C. Jones, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 21, 148 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. D. C. Jones, P. A. Leilabady, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 522, 196 (1985).

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 18, 1013 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Electron. Lett. 28, 1558 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

M. Corke, J. D. C. Jones, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 21, 148 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leilabady, P. A.

J. D. C. Jones, P. A. Leilabady, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 522, 196 (1985).

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, Fiber Integr. Opt. 10, 351 (1992).

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1169, 98 (1989).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michie, W. C.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, S. S. J. Roberts, R. Davidson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1588, 342 (1991).

Morey, W. W.

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, Fiber Integr. Opt. 10, 351 (1992).

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1169, 98 (1989).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, K. A.

G. Z. Wang, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 27, 1843 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. S. J.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, S. S. J. Roberts, R. Davidson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1588, 342 (1991).

Rogers, A. J.

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Opt. Lett. 18, 1013 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Electron. Lett. 28, 1558 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

G. Z. Wang, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 27, 1843 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A. B.

G. Z. Wang, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 27, 1843 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. Z.

G. Z. Wang, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 27, 1843 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (5)

M. Corke, J. D. C. Jones, A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 21, 148 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Wang, A. B. Wang, K. A. Murphy, A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 27, 1843 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 30, 1085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, Electron. Lett. 28, 1558 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, Fiber Integr. Opt. 10, 351 (1992).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (4)

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, S. S. J. Roberts, R. Davidson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1588, 342 (1991).

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, W. H. Glenn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1169, 98 (1989).

F. Farahi, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1511, 234 (1991).

J. D. C. Jones, P. A. Leilabady, D. A. Jackson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 522, 196 (1985).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sensor composed of a photoinduced Bragg grating (LB = 0.7 mm) and two photoinduced polarization-rocking filters of equal length (LR = 25.5 cm) separated by a distance d ~ 2 cm. The fiber is an elliptical-core D-type Andrew fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of the full polarization mode of the fiber: (a) the fiber is unstrained at room temperature, (b) the fiber is axially stressed with a strain of 3000 μ∊, (c) the fiber is heated to a temperature 150 °C above room temperature. The optical light signal level for all the spectra is vertically displaced.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ B λ B = ( 1 n n T + 1 Λ B Λ B T ) Δ T + ( 1 n n + 1 Λ B Λ B ) .
Δ λ R λ R = ( 1 δ n δ n T + 1 Λ R Λ R T ) Δ T + ( 1 δ n δ n + 1 Λ R Λ R ) .
Δ λ B λ B = 8.8 × 10 - 6 Δ T + 0.8 × 10 - 6 ,
Δ λ R λ R = - 2.56 × 10 - 4 Δ T - 2.17 × 10 - 6 ,
= 1650 Δ λ B + 59.5 Δ λ R ,
Δ T = - 14 Δ λ B - 5.41 Δ λ R .

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