Abstract

A He–Ne ring laser has given the Earth-rotation-induced Sagnac frequency to a precision of 1 μHz, or 2 parts in 108, 2 × 10−21 of the laser frequency. Because the beat frequency in a ring laser originates in either time-reversal or (with a more complicated polarization geometry) parity-violating effects, such systems have the potential of detecting ultrasmall symmetry violations.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).
  2. L. Cooper, M.Sc. thesis (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1994).
  3. M. P. Silverman, Phys. Lett. A 156, 131 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. Elliott, J. G. Small, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, 128 (1984).
  5. P. G. H. Sandars, Phys. Scr. 36, 904 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Phys. Lett. A 122, 289 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. J. Martin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, (1984).
  9. H. Statz, T. A. Dorschner, M. Holtz, I. W. Smith, in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, M. Bass, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), Vol. 4, pp. 229–332.
  10. D. J. Moore, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 2559 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Wang, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. B 26, 1415 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. E. Stedman, in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 85 of Advances in Chemical Physics Prigogine & Rice Series, S. Kielich, M. W. Evans, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 489–544.
  13. G. E. Stedman, Diagram Techniques in Group Theory (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), Chap. 9.
  14. B. I. Halperin, in Proceedings of International Seminar on High Temperature Superconductivity, V. L. Aksenov, N. M. Plakida, Y. Yu. Yuschkhai, eds. (JINR, Dubna, 1990), p. 83.
  15. H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, Opt. Commun. 80, 133 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. H. W. Hendriks, G. Nienhuis, Quantum Opt. 2, 13 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Hasselbach, M. Nicklaus, Phys. Rev. A 48, 143 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Ihm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 251 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Ihm, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 7, 2109 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Anderson, H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Am. J. Phys. 62, 975 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. R. Bilger, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a precision ring laser,” submitted toAppl. Opt.
    [PubMed]
  22. H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Ziyuan Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Prototype of a large ring laser for geoscientific applications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (to be published).

1994 (1)

R. Anderson, H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Am. J. Phys. 62, 975 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

J. Ihm, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 7, 2109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Hasselbach, M. Nicklaus, Phys. Rev. A 48, 143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

Q. Wang, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. B 26, 1415 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. P. Silverman, Phys. Lett. A 156, 131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 251 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, Opt. Commun. 80, 133 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. H. W. Hendriks, G. Nienhuis, Quantum Opt. 2, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moore, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 2559 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. G. H. Sandars, Phys. Scr. 36, 904 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Phys. Lett. A 122, 289 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

G. J. Martin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, (1984).

C. J. Elliott, J. G. Small, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, 128 (1984).

Anderson, R.

R. Anderson, H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Am. J. Phys. 62, 975 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bilger, H. R.

R. Anderson, H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Am. J. Phys. 62, 975 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, Opt. Commun. 80, 133 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Phys. Lett. A 122, 289 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Bilger, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a precision ring laser,” submitted toAppl. Opt.
[PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Ziyuan Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Prototype of a large ring laser for geoscientific applications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (to be published).

Cooper, L.

L. Cooper, M.Sc. thesis (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1994).

Dorschner, T. A.

H. Statz, T. A. Dorschner, M. Holtz, I. W. Smith, in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, M. Bass, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), Vol. 4, pp. 229–332.

Elliott, C. J.

C. J. Elliott, J. G. Small, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, 128 (1984).

Eom, C. B.

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fesler, K.

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geballe, T. H.

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halperin, B. I.

B. I. Halperin, in Proceedings of International Seminar on High Temperature Superconductivity, V. L. Aksenov, N. M. Plakida, Y. Yu. Yuschkhai, eds. (JINR, Dubna, 1990), p. 83.

Hasselbach, F.

F. Hasselbach, M. Nicklaus, Phys. Rev. A 48, 143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

B. H. W. Hendriks, G. Nienhuis, Quantum Opt. 2, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, M.

H. Statz, T. A. Dorschner, M. Holtz, I. W. Smith, in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, M. Bass, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), Vol. 4, pp. 229–332.

Ihm, J.

J. Ihm, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 7, 2109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 251 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapitulnik, A.

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

H. R. Bilger, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a precision ring laser,” submitted toAppl. Opt.
[PubMed]

Li, Ziyuan

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Ziyuan Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Prototype of a large ring laser for geoscientific applications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (to be published).

Martin, G. J.

G. J. Martin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, (1984).

Moore, D. J.

D. J. Moore, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 2559 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nicklaus, M.

F. Hasselbach, M. Nicklaus, Phys. Rev. A 48, 143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nienhuis, G.

B. H. W. Hendriks, G. Nienhuis, Quantum Opt. 2, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, M. P.

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

Rowe, C. H.

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

H. R. Bilger, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a precision ring laser,” submitted toAppl. Opt.
[PubMed]

Sandars, P. G. H.

P. G. H. Sandars, Phys. Scr. 36, 904 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M.

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Ziyuan Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Prototype of a large ring laser for geoscientific applications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (to be published).

Schreiber, U.

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Ziyuan Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Prototype of a large ring laser for geoscientific applications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (to be published).

Silverman, M. P.

M. P. Silverman, Phys. Lett. A 156, 131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Small, J. G.

C. J. Elliott, J. G. Small, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, 128 (1984).

Smith, I. W.

H. Statz, T. A. Dorschner, M. Holtz, I. W. Smith, in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, M. Bass, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), Vol. 4, pp. 229–332.

Spielman, S.

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Statz, H.

H. Statz, T. A. Dorschner, M. Holtz, I. W. Smith, in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, M. Bass, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), Vol. 4, pp. 229–332.

Stedman, G. E.

R. Anderson, H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Am. J. Phys. 62, 975 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. B 26, 1415 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, Opt. Commun. 80, 133 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Moore, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 2559 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Phys. Lett. A 122, 289 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 85 of Advances in Chemical Physics Prigogine & Rice Series, S. Kielich, M. W. Evans, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 489–544.

G. E. Stedman, Diagram Techniques in Group Theory (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), Chap. 9.

H. R. Bilger, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a precision ring laser,” submitted toAppl. Opt.
[PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Ziyuan Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Prototype of a large ring laser for geoscientific applications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (to be published).

Vetharaniam, I.

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. B 26, 1415 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wells, P. V.

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, Opt. Commun. 80, 133 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ziyuan, Li

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

R. Anderson, H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Am. J. Phys. 62, 975 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aust. J. Phys. (1)

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Li Ziyuan, M. P. Poulton, C. H. Rowe, I. Vetharaniam, P. V. Wells, Aust. J. Phys. 46, 87 (1993).

Int. J. Mod. Phys. B (1)

J. Ihm, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 7, 2109 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

Q. Wang, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. B 26, 1415 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

D. J. Moore, G. E. Stedman, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2, 2559 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, P. V. Wells, Opt. Commun. 80, 133 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

M. P. Silverman, Phys. Lett. A 156, 131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Stedman, H. R. Bilger, Phys. Lett. A 122, 289 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Hasselbach, M. Nicklaus, Phys. Rev. A 48, 143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Ihm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 251 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Spielman, K. Fesler, C. B. Eom, T. H. Geballe, M. M. Fejer, A. Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

P. G. H. Sandars, Phys. Scr. 36, 904 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

G. J. Martin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, (1984).

C. J. Elliott, J. G. Small, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 487, 128 (1984).

Quantum Opt. (1)

B. H. W. Hendriks, G. Nienhuis, Quantum Opt. 2, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. E. Stedman, in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Vol. 85 of Advances in Chemical Physics Prigogine & Rice Series, S. Kielich, M. W. Evans, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 489–544.

G. E. Stedman, Diagram Techniques in Group Theory (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), Chap. 9.

B. I. Halperin, in Proceedings of International Seminar on High Temperature Superconductivity, V. L. Aksenov, N. M. Plakida, Y. Yu. Yuschkhai, eds. (JINR, Dubna, 1990), p. 83.

L. Cooper, M.Sc. thesis (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1994).

H. Statz, T. A. Dorschner, M. Holtz, I. W. Smith, in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, M. Bass, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), Vol. 4, pp. 229–332.

H. R. Bilger, Z. Li, C. H. Rowe, G. E. Stedman, “Sideband analysis and seismic detection in a precision ring laser,” submitted toAppl. Opt.
[PubMed]

H. R. Bilger, G. E. Stedman, Ziyuan Li, U. Schreiber, M. Schneider, “Prototype of a large ring laser for geoscientific applications,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (to be published).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum (from 50 ks, with a sampling rate of 2 s−1, of the run M4MHAP4, April 4–6, 1994) from the Canterbury ring laser. The accuracy of the determination of the central line frequency is 1 μHz.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ n ( e + , k , e - ) = - δ n ( e - , - k , e + ) .
e + = e - *
δ n ( e + , k , e - ) = - δ n ( e + * , - k , e - * ) .
e + = e - e - * .
δ n ( e + , k , e - ) = - δ n ( e + , - k , e - ) .

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