Abstract

Three techniques are demonstrated for measuring femtosecond pulses from the deep vacuum ultraviolet to the visible based on the ionization dynamics of optical-field-ionized plasmas. A probe pulse propagates through a plasma generated by an intense femtosecond KrF excimer laser pump pulse. Ionization-induced defocussing or collisional absorption yield a cross-correlation measurement of the probe pulse. Ionization-induced spectral blue shifting of the probe can give an upper limit for the probe pulse duration.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Glownia, D. R. Gnass, M. Kaschke, P. P. Sorokin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1861,176 (1993).
  5. B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Glownia, J. A. Misewich, P. P. Sorokin, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 3335 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, S. C. Wilks, Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H.-S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. V. Lap, Appl. Phys. B 57, 193 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. B. Corkum, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 293.
  10. P. Kalman, F. Krausz, E. Winter, Phys. Rev. A 47, 729 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. H. Sher, U. Mohideen, H. W. K. Tom, O. R. Wood, G. D. Aumiller, R. R. Freeman, T. J. McIlrath, Opt. Lett. 18, 646 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1948 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1986), pp. 157–163.
  15. P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1579 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, Opt. Commun. 111, 297 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3523 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. P. Le Blanc, A. Qi, R. Sauerbrey, “Generation of femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses, ” submitted toAppl. Phys. B.

1994 (2)

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, Opt. Commun. 111, 297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (9)

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. V. Lap, Appl. Phys. B 57, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Kalman, F. Krausz, E. Winter, Phys. Rev. A 47, 729 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Sher, U. Mohideen, H. W. K. Tom, O. R. Wood, G. D. Aumiller, R. R. Freeman, T. J. McIlrath, Opt. Lett. 18, 646 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Glownia, D. R. Gnass, M. Kaschke, P. P. Sorokin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1861,176 (1993).

B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. H. Glownia, J. A. Misewich, P. P. Sorokin, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 3335 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1948 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, H.-S.

H.-S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. V. Lap, Appl. Phys. B 57, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amendt, P.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, S. C. Wilks, Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amstrup, B.

B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

Aumiller, G. D.

Balcou, Ph.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

Constantinescu, R. C.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1986), pp. 157–163.

P. B. Corkum, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 293.

Doll, J. D.

B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downer, M. C.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eder, D. C.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, S. C. Wilks, Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1948 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

Glownia, J. H.

J. H. Glownia, D. R. Gnass, M. Kaschke, P. P. Sorokin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1861,176 (1993).

J. H. Glownia, J. A. Misewich, P. P. Sorokin, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 3335 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gnass, D. R.

J. H. Glownia, D. R. Gnass, M. Kaschke, P. P. Sorokin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1861,176 (1993).

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heist, P.

H.-S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. V. Lap, Appl. Phys. B 57, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kalman, P.

P. Kalman, F. Krausz, E. Winter, Phys. Rev. A 47, 729 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1948 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaschke, M.

J. H. Glownia, D. R. Gnass, M. Kaschke, P. P. Sorokin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1861,176 (1993).

Kleinschmidt, J.

H.-S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. V. Lap, Appl. Phys. B 57, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

P. Kalman, F. Krausz, E. Winter, Phys. Rev. A 47, 729 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lap, D. V.

H.-S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. V. Lap, Appl. Phys. B 57, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, S. P.

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, Opt. Commun. 111, 297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, A. Qi, R. Sauerbrey, “Generation of femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses, ” submitted toAppl. Phys. B.

Lompre, L. A.

Lorincz, A.

B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

Manus, C.

McIlrath, T. J.

Misewich, J. A.

J. H. Glownia, J. A. Misewich, P. P. Sorokin, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 3335 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mohideen, U.

Momma, C.

A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monot, P.

Mossavi, K.

A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1948 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowics, A.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, A.

S. P. Le Blanc, A. Qi, R. Sauerbrey, “Generation of femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses, ” submitted toAppl. Phys. B.

Rae, S. C.

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1986), pp. 157–163.

Sauerbrey, R.

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, Opt. Commun. 111, 297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, S. C. Rae, K. Burnett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Le Blanc, A. Qi, R. Sauerbrey, “Generation of femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses, ” submitted toAppl. Phys. B.

Schins, J. M.

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sher, M. H.

Siders, C. W.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, P. P.

J. H. Glownia, D. R. Gnass, M. Kaschke, P. P. Sorokin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1861,176 (1993).

J. H. Glownia, J. A. Misewich, P. P. Sorokin, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 3335 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Szabo, G.

B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tom, H. W. K.

Tunnermann, A.

A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wellegehausen, B.

A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, S. C. Wilks, Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windolph, C.

A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Winter, E.

P. Kalman, F. Krausz, E. Winter, Phys. Rev. A 47, 729 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, O. R.

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H.-S. Albrecht, P. Heist, J. Kleinschmidt, D. V. Lap, Appl. Phys. B 57, 193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1948 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Tunnermann, C. Momma, K. Mossavi, C. Windolph, B. Wellegehausen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. H. Glownia, J. A. Misewich, P. P. Sorokin, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 3335 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Sauerbrey, Opt. Commun. 111, 297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

B. Amstrup, J. D. Doll, R. Sauerbrey, G. Szabo, A. Lorincz, Phys. Rev. A 48, 3830 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kalman, F. Krausz, E. Winter, Phys. Rev. A 47, 729 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, S. C. Wilks, Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, A. Mysyrowics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, M. C. Downer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3523 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. H. Glownia, D. R. Gnass, M. Kaschke, P. P. Sorokin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1861,176 (1993).

Other (3)

P. B. Corkum, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 293.

S. P. Le Blanc, A. Qi, R. Sauerbrey, “Generation of femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulses, ” submitted toAppl. Phys. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1986), pp. 157–163.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for generating and measuring femtosecond VUV pulses. After a femtosecond KrF laser pulse is separated by a beam splitter (not shown), one KrF pulse is used to generate a VUV pulse by a four-wave difference-frequency mixing process in Xe. The second KrF pulse (Ipump) is used to make a plasma along the VUV propagation path. Ionization-induced defocusing at aperture 2 (360 μm) causes the transmission though aperture 3 [spectrometer (spec.) slit] to decrease. The inset shows the VUV spectrum (spectral resolution of 0.08 nm) generated by a four-wave difference-frequency process in 2-Torr Xe (curve a) and the VUV spectrum generated in a mixture of 2-Torr Xe and 758-Torr Ar (curve b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

VUV pulse-width measurement by plasma defocusing. (a) Transmission of the 147-nm pulse as a function of the delay time between the VUV pulse and the plasma creation pulse for Ipump = 9 × 1013 W cm−2 (filled circles). (b) Cross-correlation pulse shape and Gaussian fit to both sets of data obtained after differentiation of the data in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Probe pulse measurement by absorption: (a) transmission (and spline curve fit) of a probe pulse at 497 nm as a function of the delay time, (b) temporal derivative of the transmission curve in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ionization-induced spectral blue shifting of the third harmonic of the KrF in 21-Torr Ar. A blue shift of 0.19 nm occurs when the fundamental intensity changes from 4 × 1014 W cm−2 (curve a) to 1.4 × 1015 W cm−2 (curve b).

Equations (1)

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Δ ω ω 0 L / 2 c ( 1 / N crit + χ / N 0 ) d n e / d t ,

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