Abstract

The microscopic third-order nonlinear-optical susceptibility γ(− ω, ω, ω, − ω) of a conjugated polymer, nonether polyphenylquinoxaline, was observed to be enhanced by two times from 355-nm optically pumped excited-state populations under the condition of unsaturated pumping. We studied the time evolution of the enhancement and verified by a fluorescence measurement that the excited-state enhancement of γ(− ω, ω, ω, − ω) is proportional to the population of the excited state.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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1992

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rodenberger, J. R. Heflin, A. F. Garito, Nature (London) 359, 309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

D. R. Ulrich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, M. A. Druy, P. Glatkowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. T. Boyd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 685 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Jenekhe, S. K. Lo, S. R. Flom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Maloney, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, W. Blau, J. M. Kelly, Chem. Phys. 121, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

1985

G. M. Carter, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, J. V. Hryniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

Baker, G. L.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, S.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blau, W.

C. Maloney, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, W. Blau, J. M. Kelly, Chem. Phys. 121, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

Byrne, H.

C. Maloney, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, W. Blau, J. M. Kelly, Chem. Phys. 121, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y. M.

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

G. M. Carter, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, J. V. Hryniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. D.

W. D. Chen, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, Q. L. Zhou, A. F. Garito, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 203.

Chen, Y. J.

G. M. Carter, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, J. V. Hryniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, W. M.

C. Maloney, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, W. Blau, J. M. Kelly, Chem. Phys. 121, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Druy, M. A.

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, M. A. Druy, P. Glatkowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fann, W.-S.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flom, S. R.

S. A. Jenekhe, S. K. Lo, S. R. Flom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rodenberger, J. R. Heflin, A. F. Garito, Nature (London) 359, 309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Chen, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, Q. L. Zhou, A. F. Garito, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 203.

Glatkowski, P.

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, M. A. Druy, P. Glatkowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, T. K.

Heflin, J. R.

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rodenberger, J. R. Heflin, A. F. Garito, Nature (London) 359, 309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

G. M. Carter, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, J. V. Hryniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jenekhe, S. A.

S. A. Jenekhe, S. K. Lo, S. R. Flom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, A. E.

Karasz, F. E.

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, M. A. Druy, P. Glatkowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. M.

C. Maloney, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, W. Blau, J. M. Kelly, Chem. Phys. 121, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P. L.

Li, F.-M.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

Lo, S. K.

S. A. Jenekhe, S. K. Lo, S. R. Flom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Madey, J. M. J.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloney, C.

C. Maloney, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, W. Blau, J. M. Kelly, Chem. Phys. 121, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, M. A. Druy, P. Glatkowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rodenberger, D. C.

D. C. Rodenberger, J. R. Heflin, A. F. Garito, Nature (London) 359, 309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Chen, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, Q. L. Zhou, A. F. Garito, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 203.

Shen, Y.-R.

Shi, R. F.

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Chen, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, Q. L. Zhou, A. F. Garito, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 203.

Sun, D.-C.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

Sun, M.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

Swiatkiewicz, J.

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, M. A. Druy, P. Glatkowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M. K.

G. M. Carter, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, J. V. Hryniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, D. R.

D. R. Ulrich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N. Q.

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.-Y.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

Wu, M.

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

Zamani-Khamiri, O.

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-T.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

Zhou, Q. L.

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Chen, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, Q. L. Zhou, A. F. Garito, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 203.

Zhu, H.-Y.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. M. Carter, M. K. Thakur, Y. J. Chen, J. V. Hryniewicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 457 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Jenekhe, S. K. Lo, S. R. Flom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2524 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, F. E. Karasz, M. A. Druy, P. Glatkowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 892 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

C. Maloney, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, W. Blau, J. M. Kelly, Chem. Phys. 121, 21 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

D. R. Ulrich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 3 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. C. Rodenberger, J. R. Heflin, A. F. Garito, Nature (London) 359, 309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Heflin, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, M. Wu, N. Q. Wang, Y. M. Cai, A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 45, R4233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W.-S. Fann, S. Benson, J. M. J. Madey, S. Etemad, G. L. Baker, F. Kajzar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1492 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. D. Chen, D. C. Rodenberger, R. F. Shi, Q. L. Zhou, A. F. Garito, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 203.

J. Yan, J.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, X.-T. Zhang, D.-C. Sun, F.-M. Li, M. Sun, “Third-order nonlinear optical property of a heterocyclic ladder polymer,” submitted toOpt. Commun.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure of nonether PPQ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence spectrum of nonether PPQ/chloroform solution pumped by a 355-nm laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time evolution of the excited-state enhancement of the third-order NLO process of nonether PPQ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Excited-state enhanced γ(− ω, ω, ω, − ω) of nonether PPQ as a function of the 355-nm pumped fluorescence. (b) The 355-nm pumped fluorescence as a function of the pump intensity.

Equations (2)

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γ i j k l eff = S n ρ S n S n γ i j k l S n ,
γ eff = η γ S 1 + ( 1 - η ) γ S 0 = ( γ S 1 - γ S 0 ) η + γ S 0 ,

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