Abstract

We can resolve multiple discrete features within a focal region of m spatial dimensions by first isolating each on the basis of n ≥ 1 unique optical characteristics and then measuring their relative spatial coordinates. The minimum acceptable separation between features depends on the point-spread function in the (m + n)-dimensional space formed by the spatial coordinates and the optical parameters, whereas the absolute spatial resolution is determined by the accuracy to which the coordinates can be measured. Estimates of each suggest that near-field fluorescence excitation microscopy/spectroscopy with molecular sensitivity and spatial resolution is possible.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Betzig, in Near-Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 7–15.
  2. N. Bobroff, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1152 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Sidles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2854 (1991); Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1124 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Rugar, C. S. Yannoni, J. A. Sidles, Nature (London) 360, 563 (1992); D. Rugar, O. Züger, S. Hoen, C. S. Yannoni, H. M. Vieth, R. D. Kendrick, Science 264, 1560 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990); H. Talon, L. Fleury, J. Bernard, M. Orrit, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 825 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. P. Ambrose, Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7150 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Orrit, J. Bernard, A. Zumbusch, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 595 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Root, J. L. Skinner, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5310 (1984); R. F. Loring, H. C. Anderson, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5395 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 143.
  12. Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 355, 335 (1992); Th. Basché, W. P. Ambrose, W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 829 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978); X. Xie, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash. (personal communication, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).
  15. E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).

1994 (1)

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 355, 335 (1992); Th. Basché, W. P. Ambrose, W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 829 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Rugar, C. S. Yannoni, J. A. Sidles, Nature (London) 360, 563 (1992); D. Rugar, O. Züger, S. Hoen, C. S. Yannoni, H. M. Vieth, R. D. Kendrick, Science 264, 1560 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, A. Zumbusch, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. P. Ambrose, Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sidles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2854 (1991); Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990); H. Talon, L. Fleury, J. Bernard, M. Orrit, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 825 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

N. Bobroff, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1152 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. Root, J. L. Skinner, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5310 (1984); R. F. Loring, H. C. Anderson, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978); X. Xie, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash. (personal communication, 1994).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose, Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Basché, Th.

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 355, 335 (1992); Th. Basché, W. P. Ambrose, W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 829 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Ambrose, Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J.

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, A. Zumbusch, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990); H. Talon, L. Fleury, J. Bernard, M. Orrit, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 825 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).

Betzig, E.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, in Near-Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 7–15.

Bobroff, N.

N. Bobroff, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1152 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978); X. Xie, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash. (personal communication, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayer, M. D.

R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gulotty, R. J.

R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Hess, H. F.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irngartinger, T.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 143.

Moerner, W. E.

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 355, 335 (1992); Th. Basché, W. P. Ambrose, W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 829 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Ambrose, Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Orrit, M.

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, A. Zumbusch, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990); H. Talon, L. Fleury, J. Bernard, M. Orrit, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 825 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, F. G.

R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plakhotnik, T.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Pohl, D. W.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978); X. Xie, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash. (personal communication, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Root, L.

L. Root, J. L. Skinner, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5310 (1984); R. F. Loring, H. C. Anderson, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rugar, D.

D. Rugar, C. S. Yannoni, J. A. Sidles, Nature (London) 360, 563 (1992); D. Rugar, O. Züger, S. Hoen, C. S. Yannoni, H. M. Vieth, R. D. Kendrick, Science 264, 1560 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidles, J. A.

D. Rugar, C. S. Yannoni, J. A. Sidles, Nature (London) 360, 563 (1992); D. Rugar, O. Züger, S. Hoen, C. S. Yannoni, H. M. Vieth, R. D. Kendrick, Science 264, 1560 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Sidles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2854 (1991); Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978); X. Xie, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash. (personal communication, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J. L.

L. Root, J. L. Skinner, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5310 (1984); R. F. Loring, H. C. Anderson, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

West, K. W.

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, U. P.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Wilson, W. L.

R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yannoni, C. S.

D. Rugar, C. S. Yannoni, J. A. Sidles, Nature (London) 360, 563 (1992); D. Rugar, O. Züger, S. Hoen, C. S. Yannoni, H. M. Vieth, R. D. Kendrick, Science 264, 1560 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, A. Zumbusch, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, R. Silbey, Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1 (1978); X. Xie, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Wash. (personal communication, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Sidles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2854 (1991); Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, A. Zumbusch, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gulotty, C. A. Walsh, F. G. Patterson, W. L. Wilson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. Lett. 125, 507 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

L. Root, J. L. Skinner, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5310 (1984); R. F. Loring, H. C. Anderson, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 81, 5395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Ambrose, Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. Rugar, C. S. Yannoni, J. A. Sidles, Nature (London) 360, 563 (1992); D. Rugar, O. Züger, S. Hoen, C. S. Yannoni, H. M. Vieth, R. D. Kendrick, Science 264, 1560 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 355, 335 (1992); Th. Basché, W. P. Ambrose, W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 829 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944); C. J. Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321 (1950).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990); H. Talon, L. Fleury, J. Bernard, M. Orrit, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 825 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

N. Bobroff, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1152 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

H. F. Hess, E. Betzig, T. D. Harris, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, Science 264, 1740 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 143.

W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

E. Betzig, in Near-Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 7–15.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Field of discrete features as conventionally imaged in m spatial dimensions with a broad PSF. (b) Same features after isolation in m + n dimensions on the basis of n distinguishing optical characteristics. (c) Final image reconstructed at resolution δx given by the uncertainty in the measured position of each isolated feature. In general, |δx| ≪ PSF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PSF’s h (η, z) along the η axis for a molecule at orientation at a distance z from a near-field aperture of radius a: (a) = , η = x; (b) = , η = y; (c) = , η = x; (d) = , η = y.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Parameter Ψ,η̂(β, z) used to calculate the position uncertainty δx as a function of the range 2βa of the χ2 fit [(a)–(d) correspond to the same and η values as in Fig. 2].

Equations (6)

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p 1 p 2 ( 2 π ) 2 r 3 0 2 π 0 2 cos ( θ 1 - θ 2 ) - 3 cos θ 1 cos θ 2 × d θ 1 d θ 2 0.98 p 1 p 2 r 3 h Δ ν ,
Δ ν tot = 1 π ν σ 2 - - exp [ - ( ν 1 - ν ¯ ) 2 ν σ 2 ] × exp [ - ( ν 2 - ν ¯ ) 2 ν σ 2 ] ν 1 - ν 2 d ν 1 d ν 2 0.80 ν σ .
δ η = ( Δ Ω N ) 1 / 2 , Ω = 1 2 β a - β a β a 1 σ 2 ( η ) [ h ( η ) η ] 2 d η ,
h ( η ) = S p ^ , η ^ ( z ) p ^ · E ^ ( η , z ) 2 S p ^ , η ^ ( z ) h p ^ ( η , z ) ,
δ η p ^ ( β , z ) = [ Δ N Ψ p ^ , η ^ ( β , z ) S p ^ , η ^ ( z ) ] 1 / 2 · a ,
Ψ p ^ , η ^ ( β , z ) = 1 β 0 β 1 h p ^ ( ζ , z ) [ h p ^ ( ζ , z ) ζ ] 2 d ζ ,             ζ = η / a .

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