Abstract

We deposited neutral-aluminum atoms in thin parallel lines to form a grating with a line separation of 154.7 nm by using near-resonant laser light and direct-write optical lithography techniques. We did this by using the single-frequency closed UV transition from the second ground state 3p 2P3/2 (F = 4) to 3d 2D5/2 (F = 5) at 309.4 nm. The aluminum features were analyzed with an atomic-force microscope.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. D. Jungbluth, Laser Focus World 29(6), 33 (1993); C. S. Adams, M. Sigel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, R. J. Celotta, Science 262, 877 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication).
  6. C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. If full modulation of the Al is desired for low-background structures, one can obtain a state-selected beam by longitudinally cooling and then deflecting the atomic beam:J. Nellessen, J. Werner, W. Ertmer, Europhys. Lett. 9, 133 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 79, 219 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. The IMC was obtained from Advanced Ceramics Corporation, P.O. Box 94924, Cleveland, Ohio 44101.
  10. P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2084 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. J. McClelland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1761 (1995).
    [Crossref]

1995 (2)

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. J. McClelland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1761 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

E. D. Jungbluth, Laser Focus World 29(6), 33 (1993); C. S. Adams, M. Sigel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, R. J. Celotta, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 79, 219 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2084 (1989).
[Crossref]

If full modulation of the Al is desired for low-background structures, one can obtain a state-selected beam by longitudinally cooling and then deflecting the atomic beam:J. Nellessen, J. Werner, W. Ertmer, Europhys. Lett. 9, 133 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, C. S.

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 79, 219 (1990).
[Crossref]

Aspect, A.

C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behringer, R. E.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren, K. K.

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruynseraede, Y.

V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
[Crossref]

Celotta, R. J.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, R. J. Celotta, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dailbard, J.

C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

If full modulation of the Al is desired for low-background structures, one can obtain a state-selected beam by longitudinally cooling and then deflecting the atomic beam:J. Nellessen, J. Werner, W. Ertmer, Europhys. Lett. 9, 133 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A. I.

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 79, 219 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gielen, L.

V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gupta, R.

R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication).

Jungbluth, E. D.

E. D. Jungbluth, Laser Focus World 29(6), 33 (1993); C. S. Adams, M. Sigel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lett, P. D.

McClelland, J. J.

J. J. McClelland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1761 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, R. J. Celotta, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication).

Metcalf, H.

C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, V.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nellessen, J.

If full modulation of the Al is desired for low-background structures, one can obtain a state-selected beam by longitudinally cooling and then deflecting the atomic beam:J. Nellessen, J. Werner, W. Ertmer, Europhys. Lett. 9, 133 (1989).
[Crossref]

Neuttiens, G.

V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
[Crossref]

Palm, E. C.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, R. J. Celotta, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

Prentiss, M.

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

Salomon, C.

C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholten, R. E.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, R. J. Celotta, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanner, C. E.

Tennant, D. M.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timp, G.

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Haesendonck, C.

V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
[Crossref]

Watts, R. N.

Werner, J.

If full modulation of the Al is desired for low-background structures, one can obtain a state-selected beam by longitudinally cooling and then deflecting the atomic beam:J. Nellessen, J. Werner, W. Ertmer, Europhys. Lett. 9, 133 (1989).
[Crossref]

Westbrook, C. I.

Europhys. Lett. (1)

If full modulation of the Al is desired for low-background structures, one can obtain a state-selected beam by longitudinally cooling and then deflecting the atomic beam:J. Nellessen, J. Werner, W. Ertmer, Europhys. Lett. 9, 133 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

V. Natarajan, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, G. Timp, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2823 (1995).
[Crossref]

Laser Focus World (1)

E. D. Jungbluth, Laser Focus World 29(6), 33 (1993); C. S. Adams, M. Sigel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rep. 240, 143 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. S. Adams, A. I. Ferguson, Opt. Commun. 79, 219 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. V. Moshchalkov, L. Gielen, G. Neuttiens, C. Van Haesendonck, Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. B 49, 15412 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Timp, R. E. Behringer, D. M. Tennant, J. E. Cunningham, M. Prentiss, K. K. Berggren, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1636 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Salomon, J. Dailbard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, R. J. Celotta, Science 262, 877 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899 (personal communication).

The IMC was obtained from Advanced Ceramics Corporation, P.O. Box 94924, Cleveland, Ohio 44101.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Level diagram showing the lower-lying atomic structure in Al. The cooling transition used was from the second ground state 3p 2P3/2 (F = 4) to 3d 2D5/2 (F = 5), which is a single-frequency closed transition. The two ground states are statistically populated, and 25% of the aluminum atoms coming from a thermal source are in the 3p 2P3/2 (F = 4) hyperfine level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic showing the Al oven source, the OM, the SW, a piezoelectric transducer (PZT), the AO with ΔAO = −200 MHz, and relevant parameters. The detunings are ΔOM = −10 ± 4 MHz and ΔSW = −210 ± 4 MHz. SHG, Second-harmonic generation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A 6 μm × 6 μm AFM scan showing the nanoscale features of the grating. The highly parallel lines have a line separation of ~154.7 nm and a height of 2 nm. (b) A 1.5 μm × 1.5 μm scan plotted in three dimensions reveals the structure of the Al lines with a FWHM of ~70 nm.

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