Abstract

A 490-nm-deep nanostructure with a period of 200 nm was fabricated in a GaAs substrate by use of electron-beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. The form birefringence of this microstructure was studied numerically with rigorous coupled-wave analysis and compared with experimental measurements at a wavelength of 920 nm. The numerically predicted phase retardation of 163.3° was found to be in close agreement with the experimentally measured result of 162.5°, thereby verifying the validity of our numerical modeling. The fabricated microstructures show extremely large artificial anisotropy compared with that available in naturally birefringent materials and are useful for numerous polarization optics applications.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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1995 (3)

1994 (1)

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

T. Sato, K. Shiraishi, K. Tsuchida, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2633 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Opt. 31, 4459 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Cescato, L. H.

Collischon, M.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Ford, J. E.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gluch, E.

Glytsis, E. N.

Haidner, H.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

H. Kikuta, H. Yoshida, K. Iwata, Opt. Rev. 2, 92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

T. Sato, K. Shiraishi, K. Tsuchida, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2633 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Yoshida, K. Iwata, Opt. Rev. 2, 92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, Y.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kipfer, P.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lindolf, J.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Ohba, A.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ono, Y.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Raguin, D. H.

Ricther, I.

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Sato, T.

T. Sato, K. Shiraishi, K. Tsuchida, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2633 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

T. Sato, K. Shiraishi, K. Tsuchida, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2633 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Cescato, E. Gluch, N. Streibl, Appl. Opt. 29, 3286 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugama, S.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P. C.

Tsuchida, K.

T. Sato, K. Shiraishi, K. Tsuchida, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2633 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Urino, Y.

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Urquhart, K.

Xu, F.

Yoshida, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Yoshida, K. Iwata, Opt. Rev. 2, 92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Sato, K. Shiraishi, K. Tsuchida, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2633 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. (1)

A. Ohba, Y. Kimura, S. Sugama, Y. Urino, Y. Ono, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28, 359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Kipfer, M. Collischon, H. Haidner, J. Schwider, N. Streibl, J. Lindolf, Opt. Eng. 33, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Yoshida, K. Iwata, Opt. Rev. 2, 92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the procedures for the fabrication of form-birefringent nanostructures in GaAs substrates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM photographs of the fabricated form-birefringent nanostructure in a GaAs substrate: (a) top and (b) cross-sectional views.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup for the characterization of form-birefringent nanostructures. Pol. Rot., polarization rotator; MO, microscope objective.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental measurements and curve-fitted results of the transmitted intensity versus the orientation of the analyzer for a GaAs substrate with and without the form-birefringent high-spatial-frequency grating (HSFG).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J s = [ a 0 0 b exp ( j ϕ s ) ] ,
[ E H out E V out ] = J ( θ ) [ a 0 0 b exp ( j ϕ s ) ] [ 1 1 ] E i 2 ,
J ( θ ) = R ( - θ ) J ( 0 ) R ( θ ) = [ cos  θ sin  θ - sin  θ cos  θ ] [ 1 0 0 0 ] [ cos  θ - sin  θ sin  θ cos  θ ]
I out = ( a 2 cos 2 θ + b 2 sin 2 θ + 2 a b sin  2 θ cos  ϕ s ) I in 2 .

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