Abstract

Two-photon-pumped cavity lasing has been achieved in a dye-solution-filled hollow-fiber configuration that provides both a longer gain length and a higher local pump intensity. The gain medium is a solution of the new dye 4-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-(methyl)amino phenyl]-4′-(6-hydroxyhexyl sulfonyl)stilbene in dimethyl sulfoxide, which shows a strong two-photon-absorption-induced fluorescence when excited with near-infrared radiation. When the system is pumped with 800-nm 5-ns laser pulses, frequency-upconverted cavity lasing can be observed with a peak lasing wavelength near 565 nm and a 2–3.5-ns pulse duration. One of the major advantages of using a hollow-fiber geometry is the low two-photon pump threshold, which was measured to be as low as 20–30 μJ for a 15-cm-long hollow-fiber sample of 100-μm internal diameter. The conversion efficiency from the absorbed pump energy to the upconverted lasing output was 2.3%.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Rapp, B. Gronau, Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529 (1971).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. S. Kwok, A. Serpenguzel, W. F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, J. B. Gillespie, Opt. Lett. 17, 1435 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Mukherjee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. G. S. He, G. C. Xu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 323 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. S. He, M. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, X. Li, Appl. Opt. 34, 444 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

A. Mukherjee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1990 (2)

G. S. He, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, Appl. Phys. B 48, 115 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Schaefer, I. Chabay, Opt. Lett. 4, 227 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (3)

J. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, A. J.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon-absorption dye-doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Burzynski, R.

G. S. He, M. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, X. Li, Appl. Opt. 34, 444 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, E.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Casstevens, M.

Chabay, I.

Chang, R. K.

Fleury, P. A.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, H. L.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, K.

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Gribkovskii, V. P.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gronau, B.

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hays, J. M.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, M. Casstevens, R. Burzynski, X. Li, Appl. Opt. 34, 444 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 323 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon-absorption dye-doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Hsieh, W. F.

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, V. A.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kachinskii, A. C.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, A. S.

Li, X.

Miyazaki, K.

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, A.

A. Mukherjee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parashchuk, V. V.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, Appl. Phys. B 48, 115 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon-absorption dye-doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Qiu, P.

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, Appl. Phys. B 48, 115 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rapp, W.

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rubinov, A. N.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sala, K.

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, J. C.

Serpenguzel, A.

Shan, W.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

J. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. C.

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 323 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskii, G. P.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. H.

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zaporozhchenko, V. A.

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. F.

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon-absorption dye-doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Qiu, A. Penzkofer, Appl. Phys. B 48, 115 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. N. Rubinov, M. C. Richardson, K. Sala, A. J. Alcock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 358 (1975).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Yang, J. M. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, E. Cantwell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1071 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. Mukherjee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Rapp, B. Gronau, Chem. Phys. Lett. 8, 529 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 323 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. He, R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 7647 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Yoshida, K. Miyazaki, K. Fujisawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. S. He, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2687 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. K. N. Patel, P. A. Fleury, R. E. Slusher, H. L. Frisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 971 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Gribkovskii, V. A. Zaporozhchenko, V. A. Ivanov, A. C. Kachinskii, V. V. Parashchuk, G. P. Yablonskii, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 1305 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon-absorption dye-doped solid matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption spectral distributions of 1-mm path-length APSS dye solutions in DMSO of concentration d0 = 0.0012 mol/L (curve a) and d0 = 0.012 mol/L (curve b). The linear absorption of 1-mm path-length pure DMSO is shown by curve c. The molecular structure of APSS is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for TPP cavity lasing in a dye-solution- filled hollow-fiber configuration. L, microscope objective; FC1, FC2, liquid coupling cells.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized 400-nm one-photon-induced fluorescence spectrum (curve a) and 800-nm-pumped lasing spectrum (curve b) of a APSS–DMSO solution with d0 = 0.012 mol/L.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal profiles of (a) the 800-nm pump pulse and ( b), (c) the ~565-nm cavity lasing pulses at two different pump levels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse energy of the ~565-nm cavity lasing output as a function of the input 800-nm pulse energy. The repetition rate was 1 Hz.

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