Abstract

During the past five years, delay-Doppler radar has become the primary technique for studying the structure of Earth-crossing asteroids. None of these objects has yet been visited by spacecraft, so ground-truth test cases are lacking. A laboratory system is described that provides optical-radar images at 0.1-mm resolution. These data are analogous to the highest-resolution asteroid radar images currently available and provided realistic test cases for developing signal-processing techniques. The system can be thought of as a 1/188,000 scale model of the Arecibo radar, or a 1/52,800 scale model of the Goldstone radar.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. R. Chapman, D. Morrison, Nature (London) 367, 33 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.
  3. R. S. Hudson, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Ostro, in Asteroids II, R. P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1989), pp. 192–212.
  5. T. Dresel, G. Hausler, H. Venzke, Appl. Opt. 31, 919 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. J. Ostro, Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1235 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. S. Hudson, S. J. Ostro, Science 263, 940 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

C. R. Chapman, D. Morrison, Nature (London) 367, 33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Hudson, S. J. Ostro, Science 263, 940 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

R. S. Hudson, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Ostro, Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Chapman, C. R.

C. R. Chapman, D. Morrison, Nature (London) 367, 33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. R.

T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.

Dresel, T.

Eppler, D. B.

T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.

Friedlander, A. L.

T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.

Hausler, G.

Hudson, R. S.

R. S. Hudson, S. J. Ostro, Science 263, 940 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Hudson, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. D.

T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.

Krikalev, S.

T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.

McAdams, J.

T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.

Morrison, D.

C. R. Chapman, D. Morrison, Nature (London) 367, 33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ostro, S. J.

R. S. Hudson, S. J. Ostro, Science 263, 940 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Ostro, Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Ostro, in Asteroids II, R. P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1989), pp. 192–212.

Venzke, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nature (1)

C. R. Chapman, D. Morrison, Nature (London) 367, 33 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Rev. (1)

R. S. Hudson, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. J. Ostro, Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1235 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. S. Hudson, S. J. Ostro, Science 263, 940 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. J. Ostro, in Asteroids II, R. P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, M. S. Matthews, eds. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1989), pp. 192–212.

T. D. Jones, D. B. Eppler, D. R. Davis, A. L. Friedlander, J. McAdams, S. Krikalev, in Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, T. Gehrels, ed. (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1994), pp. 683–708.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DD imaging geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser-radar system. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A, DD (top row) and POS (bottom row) images of a 1.1-cm bolt. Delay increases from top to bottom; Doppler increases from right to left. B, DD and POS images of a 1-cm rock.

Equations (6)

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τ ( x , y ) = - 2 c z ( x , y ) ,
ν ( x ) = - 4 π cos δ λ r P x ,
σ ( τ , ν ) = | h τ [ τ - τ ( x , y ) ] h ν [ ν - ν ( x ) ] b ( x , y ) d x d y | 2 ,
h τ { 1 - τ / Δ τ τ Δ τ 0 τ > Δ τ ,
h ν sinc( ν / Δ ν )
σ ( τ , ν ) = h τ [ τ - τ ( x , y ) ] h ν [ ν - ν ( x ) ] 2 × b ( x , y ) 2 d x d y .

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