Abstract

We demonstrate phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a poled polymer waveguide, using anomalous-dispersion phase matching. Phase matching was achieved between lowest-order fundamental and harmonic modes, TM0ω to TM02ω, at a fundamental wavelength of 815 nm over a propagation length of 32 μm. The maximum conversion efficiency was ηexp = 39%/W cm2, in good agreement with theory.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Doumuki, K. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2519 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, Y. Kitaoka, M. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2599 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, Appl. Opt. 30, 2957 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, A. Feiring, G. Rikken, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 203 (1990).
  9. P. A. Cahill, D. R. Tallant, T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 130 (1991).
  10. P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, L. A. King, Opt. Lett. 14, 1137 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 455, 200 (1991).
  12. M. A. Mortazavi, G. Khanarian, Opt. Lett. 19, 1290 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, L. A. King, H. M. Gordon, H. E. Katz, C. W. Dirk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1339 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. V. Khaydarov, J. H. Andrews, K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1614 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), p. 43.

1994 (4)

T. Doumuki, K. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2519 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. V. Khaydarov, J. H. Andrews, K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mortazavi, G. Khanarian, Opt. Lett. 19, 1290 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, Y. Kitaoka, M. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2599 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

P. A. Cahill, D. R. Tallant, T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 130 (1991).

P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 455, 200 (1991).

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, S. Kunioka, Y. Nonaka, K. Sasaki, Appl. Opt. 30, 2957 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, A. Feiring, G. Rikken, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 203 (1990).

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

Andrews, J. H.

J. D. V. Khaydarov, J. H. Andrews, K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, N.

T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, P. A.

P. A. Cahill, D. R. Tallant, T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 130 (1991).

P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 455, 200 (1991).

P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, L. A. King, Opt. Lett. 14, 1137 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), p. 43.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.-T.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, A. Feiring, G. Rikken, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 203 (1990).

Dirk, C. W.

Doumuki, T.

T. Doumuki, K. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2519 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ezenyilimba, M. C.

T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feiring, A.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, A. Feiring, G. Rikken, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 203 (1990).

Feuer, B.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. M.

Haas, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kamath, M.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, Y. Kitaoka, M. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2599 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

Khanarian, G.

M. A. Mortazavi, G. Khanarian, Opt. Lett. 19, 1290 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khaydarov, J. D. V.

J. D. V. Khaydarov, J. H. Andrews, K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, L. A.

Kinoshita, T.

Kitaoka, Y.

K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, Y. Kitaoka, M. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2599 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, T. C.

P. A. Cahill, D. R. Tallant, T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 130 (1991).

Kumar, J.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kunioka, S.

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, Y. Kitaoka, M. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2599 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

Motschmann, H. R.

T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nonaka, Y.

Norwood, R. A.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Penner, T.

T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, A. Feiring, G. Rikken, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 203 (1990).

Saitoh, M.

T. Doumuki, K. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2519 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Singer, K. D.

J. D. V. Khaydarov, J. H. Andrews, K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 455, 200 (1991).

P. A. Cahill, D. R. Tallant, T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 130 (1991).

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, L. A. King, H. M. Gordon, H. E. Katz, C. W. Dirk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, L. A. King, Opt. Lett. 14, 1137 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohn, J. E.

Sugihara, O.

Tallant, D. R.

P. A. Cahill, D. R. Tallant, T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 130 (1991).

Tam, W.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, A. Feiring, G. Rikken, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 203 (1990).

Tamada, K.

T. Doumuki, K. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2519 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, Y. Kitaoka, M. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2599 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), p. 43.

Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. (1)

P. A. Cahill, K. D. Singer, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 455, 200 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. D. V. Khaydarov, J. H. Andrews, K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Doumuki, K. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2519 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, K. Mizuuchi, Y. Kitaoka, M. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2599 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

T. Penner, H. R. Motschmann, N. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, D. J. Williams, Nature (London) 367, 49 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, Opt. Commun. 101, 231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, A. Feiring, G. Rikken, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 203 (1990).

P. A. Cahill, D. R. Tallant, T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 130 (1991).

Other (1)

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), p. 43.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index measurements of 6% and 8% TBA–PMMA-doped films (points). The curves with data points show fits to a two-term Sellmeier equation with the absorption maxima and oscillator strengths determined from absorption measurements. Also shown are the absorption spectra of 6% and 8% TBA–PMMA films (curves without data points).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective index for TM 0 2 ω and TM 0 2 ω modes plotted for 6% (dashed curves) and 8% (solid curves) films with refractive indices measured after electric-field poling.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally measured second-harmonic intensity plotted for films of various thicknesses (data points) for (a) 8% and (b) 6% TBA–PMMA films. The maximum amount of second harmonic was obtained for thicknesses of 1.4 and 2.0 μm in (a) and (b), respectively. The solid curves are fits to sinc2(x) with the amplitude and propagation length as adjustable parameters.

Equations (1)

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η exp = P 2 ω κ 3 P ω 2 L 2 ,

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