Abstract

We describe two new techniques, based on optical coherence tomography (OCT), for determining the refractive index of highly scattering human tissue. We obtained refractive indices of in vitro human tissue, using OCT to measure the physical and optical path lengths of the sample. We obtained measurements of the refractive index of in vitro and in vivo human tissue, using OCT to track the focal length shift that results from translating the focus along the optic axis within the tissue. The refractive indices of human skin, adipose, and muscle were measured and compared with previously published estimates.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, R. C. Taylor, R. J. Ference, Appl. Opt. 28, 2297 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, Appl. Opt. 12, 555 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, R. C. Taylor, R. J. Ference, Appl. Opt. 28, 2297 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jaques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolin, F. P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ference, R. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gahm, T.

T. Gahm, S. Witte, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 141, 101 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaques, S. L.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jaques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knuttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preuss, L. E.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jaques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jaques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. C.

Van Gemert, M. J. C.

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jaques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, S.

T. Gahm, S. Witte, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 141, 101 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. J. C. Van Gemert, S. L. Jaques, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, W. M. Star, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1146 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, J. Invest. Dermatol. 77, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

T. Gahm, S. Witte, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 141, 101 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 1, p. 43.21.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the OCT system. SLD, superluminescent diode; A/D, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT image of human dermis placed on an unpolished metal substrate. The two vertical bars represent z, z′, from top to bottom. The horizontal bar in the upper left-hand corner represents 500 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT focus tracking geometry for a single-index medium.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 OCT Optical Path Length Refractive-Index Measurements for Reference Phantoms

Tables Icon

Table 2 OCT Optical Path Length Refractive-Index Measurements for In Vitro Human Tissue Specimens

Tables Icon

Table 3 OCT Focus Tracking Refractive-Index Measurements for Human Skin

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = z + z z .
n sin { tan - 1 [ n z tan ( θ ) z + Δ z ] } = N.A. ,

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