Abstract

A new method for fabricating analog light modulators on VLSI devices is described. The process is fully compatible with devices fabricated by commercial VLSI foundries, and the assembly of the modulator structures requires a small number of simple processing steps. The modulators are capable of analog amplitude or phase modulation and can operate at video rates and at low voltages (2.2 V). The modulation mechanism and the process yielding the modulator structures are described. Experimental data are presented.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Underwood, D. G. Vaas, A. O’Hara, D. C. Burns, P. W. McOwan, J. Gourlay, Appl. Opt. 33, 2768 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. J. Drabik, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Opt. 29, 5220 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 16, 967 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. J. McKnight, K. M. Johnson, R. A. Serati, Appl. Opt. 33, 2775 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Barberi, G. Barbero, in Physics of Liquid Crystalline Materials, I.-C. Khoo, F. Simoni, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988), Chap. IX.
  10. “Liquid crystal mixtures for electro-optic displays” (E. Merck, Industrial Chemical Division, September1992).
  11. MOSIS User Guide, release 3.1 ed. (MOSIS, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Marina del Ray, Calif., August1992).

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barberi, R.

R. Barberi, G. Barbero, in Physics of Liquid Crystalline Materials, I.-C. Khoo, F. Simoni, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988), Chap. IX.

Barbero, G.

R. Barberi, G. Barbero, in Physics of Liquid Crystalline Materials, I.-C. Khoo, F. Simoni, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988), Chap. IX.

Burns, D. C.

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, L. K.

Dillon, R. J.

Drabik, T. J.

Gourlay, J.

Handschy, M. A.

Jared, D. A.

Johnson, K. M.

Lagerwall, S. T.

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McKnight, D. J.

McOwan, P. W.

O’Hara, A.

Serati, R. A.

Sillitto, R. M.

Underwood, I.

Vaas, D. G.

Vass, D. G.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

R. Barberi, G. Barbero, in Physics of Liquid Crystalline Materials, I.-C. Khoo, F. Simoni, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988), Chap. IX.

“Liquid crystal mixtures for electro-optic displays” (E. Merck, Industrial Chemical Division, September1992).

MOSIS User Guide, release 3.1 ed. (MOSIS, Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Marina del Ray, Calif., August1992).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a reflective HAN cell fabricated on the surface of a VLSI die of wafer, showing the smoothly rotating director field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electro-optic characteristics at 632.8 nm of a transmissive HAN cell with a 10-μm gap and a reflective HAN-on-VLSI sample with a 5-μm gap. Both cells were filled with Merck E7. Note that the entire amplitude-modulation range of the HAN-on-VLSI device is spanned by the 1.1-V amplitude interval between 1.1 and 2.2 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rows of six pixels at maximum (top) and minimum (bottom) reflection settings. Voltage-dependent reflectance is also observed in the areas surrounding the pixels, as a result of the presence of conductors at various potentials and depths within the silicon dioxide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electro-optic responses of different areas of the same device (sample 126) and of another device processed by the same procedure (sample 127). Note the excellent uniformity of the voltages corresponding to the first reflectance maximum and minimum.

Equations (2)

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ϕ ( z ) π 2 d ( z + d 2 ) .
Δ ϕ 2 π λ n o d ( 2 π 0 π / 2 d ϕ 1 - R sin 2 ϕ - 1 ) ,

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