Abstract

We describe the formation of ZrOxFy optical waveguides by oxygen ion-beam-assisted deposition of ZrF4 films. Waveguide losses less than 1 dB/cm for the TE0 mode at 514 nm resulted from bombardment with 600-eV O2+ ions, and the waveguide index was a function of bombarding current at this energy, with a maximum change of Δn = 0.28. Local bombardment of a waveguide resulted in generation of an integrated planar lens compatible with holographic fabrication. The process is also suitable for the formation of graded-index waveguides.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).
  2. T. Tamir, ed., Integrated Optics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).
  3. D. B. Anderson, R. L. Davis, J. T. Boyd, R. R. August, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 275 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Minot, C. C. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1856 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2495 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Sochacki, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. N. Lawrence, Applied Optics Research, 4455 N. Osage Road, Tucson, Ariz. 85718 (personal communication, 1989).
  8. M. Kobayashi, H. Terui, Appl. Opt. 22, 3121 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. K. Hwangbo, L. J. Lingg, J. P. Lehan, H. A. MacLeod, F. Suits, Appl. Opt. 28, 2779 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. N. Binh, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 22/23, 656 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. J. Gibson, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 223, 263 (1991).
  12. M. D. Himel, “Microstructure effects on light propagation in zinc sulfide thin film waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1988), p. 72.
  13. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasoit, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. D. Himel, U. J. Gibson, Appl. Opt. 25, 4413 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. U. J. Gibson, K. D. Cornett, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of zirconium oxyfluoride thin films with varying composition and refractive index,” to be submitted toJ. Vac. Sci. Technol.
  16. R. T. Chen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1374, 162 (1990).

1993

R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2495 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

U. J. Gibson, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 223, 263 (1991).

1990

M. M. Minot, C. C. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1374, 162 (1990).

1989

1988

J. Sochacki, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

L. N. Binh, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 22/23, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

1977

D. B. Anderson, R. L. Davis, J. T. Boyd, R. R. August, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 275 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasoit, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. B.

D. B. Anderson, R. L. Davis, J. T. Boyd, R. R. August, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 275 (1977).
[CrossRef]

August, R. R.

D. B. Anderson, R. L. Davis, J. T. Boyd, R. R. August, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 275 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Binh, L. N.

L. N. Binh, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 22/23, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

D. B. Anderson, R. L. Davis, J. T. Boyd, R. R. August, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 275 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2495 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1374, 162 (1990).

Cornett, K. D.

U. J. Gibson, K. D. Cornett, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of zirconium oxyfluoride thin films with varying composition and refractive index,” to be submitted toJ. Vac. Sci. Technol.

Davis, R. L.

D. B. Anderson, R. L. Davis, J. T. Boyd, R. R. August, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 275 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasoit, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gasoit, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasoit, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, U. J.

U. J. Gibson, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 223, 263 (1991).

M. D. Himel, U. J. Gibson, Appl. Opt. 25, 4413 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. J. Gibson, K. D. Cornett, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of zirconium oxyfluoride thin films with varying composition and refractive index,” to be submitted toJ. Vac. Sci. Technol.

Haruna, M.

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Himel, M. D.

M. D. Himel, U. J. Gibson, Appl. Opt. 25, 4413 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Himel, “Microstructure effects on light propagation in zinc sulfide thin film waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1988), p. 72.

Hwangbo, C. K.

Kobayashi, M.

Lawrence, G. N.

G. N. Lawrence, Applied Optics Research, 4455 N. Osage Road, Tucson, Ariz. 85718 (personal communication, 1989).

Lee, C. C.

M. M. Minot, C. C. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lehan, J. P.

Lingg, L. J.

MacLeod, H. A.

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasoit, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

L. N. Binh, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 22/23, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Minot, M. M.

M. M. Minot, C. C. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

L. N. Binh, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 22/23, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, N.

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Sochacki, J.

J. Sochacki, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Suits, F.

Terui, H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2495 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

L. N. Binh, R. P. Netterfield, P. J. Martin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 22/23, 656 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. B. Anderson, R. L. Davis, J. T. Boyd, R. R. August, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 275 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. M. Minot, C. C. Lee, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1856 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

J. Sochacki, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 891 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasoit, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp.

U. J. Gibson, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 223, 263 (1991).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

R. T. Chen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1374, 162 (1990).

Other

U. J. Gibson, K. D. Cornett, “Ion-beam-assisted deposition of zirconium oxyfluoride thin films with varying composition and refractive index,” to be submitted toJ. Vac. Sci. Technol.

M. D. Himel, “Microstructure effects on light propagation in zinc sulfide thin film waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1988), p. 72.

G. N. Lawrence, Applied Optics Research, 4455 N. Osage Road, Tucson, Ariz. 85718 (personal communication, 1989).

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

T. Tamir, ed., Integrated Optics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vacuum system used for the deposition of waveguiding films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Film index as a function of the O 2 + -ion bombardment energy for a range of ion fluxes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index of refraction of the films as a function of the ion-to-atom arrival ratio for different beam energies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Waveguide losses of the TE0 mode at 6328 nm as a function of O 2 + -ion bombarding energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scattered light streak through a thin-film lens formed by ion bombardment. The arrows indicate the position of the lens and where the undeflected beam would have left the substrate.

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