Abstract

Strong permanent gratings are generated at 193 nm in phosphosilicate optical fibers that are produced by the flash condensation technique, provided that the fibers have been sensitized with hydrogen. Evidence is presented that the sensitization involves a chemical reaction of the hydrogen in the core. Without hydrogenation only transient gratings could be observed.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CWK3.
  3. A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, Electron. Lett. 28, 2009 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, J. V. Hanna, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 4.
  5. J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 576 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford U. Press, London, 1975).
  7. M. Fox, S. J. Stannard-Powell, Electron. Lett. 19, 916 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1994).

1995 (1)

J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 576 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1994).

1992 (1)

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, Electron. Lett. 28, 2009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Fox, S. J. Stannard-Powell, Electron. Lett. 19, 916 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J.-L.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CWK3.

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 576 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. L. G.

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, Electron. Lett. 28, 2009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, J. V. Hanna, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 4.

Crank, J.

J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford U. Press, London, 1975).

Dong, L.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CWK3.

Fox, M.

M. Fox, S. J. Stannard-Powell, Electron. Lett. 19, 916 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, J. V.

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, J. V. Hanna, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 4.

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, T.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1994).

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, Electron. Lett. 28, 2009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, J. V. Hanna, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 4.

Reekie, L.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CWK3.

Russell, P. St. J.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CWK3.

Sceats, M. G.

J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 576 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1994).

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, Electron. Lett. 28, 2009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, J. V. Hanna, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 4.

Stannard-Powell, S. J.

M. Fox, S. J. Stannard-Powell, Electron. Lett. 19, 916 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, Electron. Lett. 28, 2009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 576 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Fox, S. J. Stannard-Powell, Electron. Lett. 19, 916 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1994).

Other (3)

J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford U. Press, London, 1975).

A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, S. B. Poole, J. V. Hanna, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 4.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, L. Dong, P. St. J. Russell, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper CWK3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for grating writing with 240-nm UV light. LED, light-emitting diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission of a grating written in H2-loaded Yb3+/Er3+-doped phosphosilicate fiber written at 240 and 193 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra over time for a transient grating in unhydrogenated phosphosilicate fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated plot of the relative concentration versus time for H2 diffusion into a silica fiber (solid curve) and normalized experimental reflectivities as a function of H2- loading duration (filled squares).

Equations (3)

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C t C = 1 - 2 n = 1 exp ( - j n 2 D t m / b 2 ) j n J 1 ( j n ) ,
t m = t + w 2 8 D
D = ( 2.83 × 10 4 ) exp ( - 40.19 k J / mol R T ) cm 2 / s .

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