Abstract

We demonstrate a new method for the characterization of high-numerical-aperture lenses based on the fluorescent detection of the spatial autocorrelation of the focal field. Numerical calculations without any fitting parameters, based on scalar diffraction theory, are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The novel method provides lens characterization parameters similar to those obtained with point-spread function measurements in real time, which may be expected to be suitable for high-numerical-aperture lens testing and alignment procedures.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, J. Microsc. 117, 219 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van de Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 405 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. F. Gibson, F. Lanni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1601 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. T. M. van de Voort, G. J. Brakenhoff, G. C. A. M. Janssen, Optik 78, 48 (1988).
  5. H. T. M. van de Voort, K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1986), pp. 17–81.
  7. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 203–230.
  8. M. Müller, J. Squier, G. Brakenhoff, Opt. Lett. 20, 1038 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

H. T. M. van de Voort, K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, J. Squier, G. Brakenhoff, Opt. Lett. 20, 1038 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

H. T. M. van de Voort, G. J. Brakenhoff, G. C. A. M. Janssen, Optik 78, 48 (1988).

1986 (1)

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van de Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 405 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, J. Microsc. 117, 219 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barends, P.

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, J. Microsc. 117, 219 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Blom, P.

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, J. Microsc. 117, 219 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 203–230.

Brakenhoff, G.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

H. T. M. van de Voort, G. J. Brakenhoff, G. C. A. M. Janssen, Optik 78, 48 (1988).

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van de Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 405 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, J. Microsc. 117, 219 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, S. F.

Janssen, G. C. A. M.

H. T. M. van de Voort, G. J. Brakenhoff, G. C. A. M. Janssen, Optik 78, 48 (1988).

Lanni, F.

Müller, M.

Nanninga, N.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van de Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 405 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

Stamnes, J. J.

J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1986), pp. 17–81.

Strasters, K. C.

H. T. M. van de Voort, K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van de Voort, H. T. M.

H. T. M. van de Voort, K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. T. M. van de Voort, G. J. Brakenhoff, G. C. A. M. Janssen, Optik 78, 48 (1988).

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van de Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 405 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Spronsen, E. A.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van de Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 405 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 203–230.

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van de Voort, E. A. van Spronsen, N. Nanninga, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 483, 405 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (2)

H. T. M. van de Voort, K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Brakenhoff, P. Blom, P. Barends, J. Microsc. 117, 219 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

H. T. M. van de Voort, G. J. Brakenhoff, G. C. A. M. Janssen, Optik 78, 48 (1988).

Other (2)

J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1986), pp. 17–81.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 203–230.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental the setup for PSAF measurements: Laser, 25-mW argon-ion laser; T, telescope; VD, variable-delay line; BS1, 50% beam splitter: BS2, 50% beam splitter with motorized tilt control; DP, diaphragm; BD, beam dump; L, 200-mm lens; D, dichroic mirror; O, objective; S, sample on a variable-height translation stage; PMT, photomultiplier tube; Lock-in amplifier, PAR Model 121; Scope, LeCroy 9361 digital scope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PSAF for three different values of the effective NA of the objective: (a) 1.3 (±0.04), (b) 0.9 (±0.05), (c) 0.6 (±0.05).

Equations (2)

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G ( Δ r , τ ) - d t - d r u ( r , t ) + u ( r + Δ r , t + τ ) 2 ,
I PSAF ( Δ r ) = Max [ G ( Δ r , τ ) ; τ ( 0 , λ / c ) ] - Min [ G ( Δ r , τ ) ; τ ( 0 , λ / c ) ] ,

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