Abstract

Exposure of semiconductor-doped glasses to above-band-gap focused cw laser radiation results in the controllable formation of microlenses. A laser-driven thermal runaway is proposed to explain the low powers required for the process. A linear array of eight identically prepared microlenses is characterized and shown to exhibit diffraction-limited performance.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. F. Borrelli, D. L. Morse, R. H. Bellman, W. L. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 24, 2520 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Sasaki, T. Baba, K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1611 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, Opt. Lett. 20, 958 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 42, 173 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, A. Mysyrowicz, Introduction to Semiconductor Optics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).
  9. F. Henneberger, J. Puls, in Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, F. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, E. O. Göbel, eds. (Akademie, Berlin, 1993).
  10. H. Scholze, Glass Nature, Structure, and Properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990).

1995 (2)

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hisakuni, K. Tanaka, Opt. Lett. 20, 958 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 42, 173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Sasaki, T. Baba, K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Baba, T.

A. Sasaki, T. Baba, K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bellman, R. H.

Borrelli, N. F.

Daly, D.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davies, N.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, C. L.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, F.

F. Henneberger, J. Puls, in Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, F. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, E. O. Göbel, eds. (Akademie, Berlin, 1993).

Hisakuni, H.

Hutley, M. C.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

A. Sasaki, T. Baba, K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, A. Mysyrowicz, Introduction to Semiconductor Optics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W. L.

Morse, D. L.

Mull, D. E.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, A. Mysyrowicz, Introduction to Semiconductor Optics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

Peyghambarian, N.

N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, A. Mysyrowicz, Introduction to Semiconductor Optics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

Puls, J.

F. Henneberger, J. Puls, in Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, F. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, E. O. Göbel, eds. (Akademie, Berlin, 1993).

Sasaki, A.

A. Sasaki, T. Baba, K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, H.

H. Scholze, Glass Nature, Structure, and Properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990).

Stevens, R. F.

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, J. S.

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

Waarts, R. G.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoffe, A. D.

A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 42, 173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

A. D. Yoffe, Adv. Phys. 42, 173 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. L. Liau, D. E. Mull, C. L. Dennis, R. C. Williamson, R. G. Waarts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Swenson, R. A. Fields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Sasaki, T. Baba, K. Iga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1611 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, N. Davies, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, A. Mysyrowicz, Introduction to Semiconductor Optics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

F. Henneberger, J. Puls, in Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, F. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, E. O. Göbel, eds. (Akademie, Berlin, 1993).

H. Scholze, Glass Nature, Structure, and Properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic-force-microscope contact topography image of a small microlens. The diameter is 13 μm, and the height is 0.75 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of Ith versus T for a 2-mm-thick sample of RG610.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the microlens diameter versus incident laser power. The solid curve represents a least-squares fit to Eq. (2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of α versus T for 580-nm light through RG610.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured focal lengths (filled circles) and power throughputs (filled triangles) of the individual microlenses in the array sent to McGill University for analysis.

Equations (3)

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I ( r ) = I 0 exp ( - 2 r 2 / w 2 ) .
r c = 1 2 w ln ( I 0 ) - ln ( I c ) .
d T d t = A α ( T + T 0 ) - T τ diff ,

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