Abstract

We propose a new method based on the differential absorption lidar technique for multipollutant detection. A broadband laser is sent into the atmosphere in a wavelength range in which several pollutants absorb. The backscattered light is analyzed by a Fourier-transform spectrometer with time resolution. This mode of detection provides both spatial and high spectral resolution down to 0.01 cm−1, allowing range-resolved measurements of several pollutants simultaneously. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, we have measured water vapor concentration by using more than 10 individual lines in the 720-nm absorption band. The potential and the limitations are discussed critically.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. B 54, 89 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.
  3. J. L. Hudson, M. J. Thomas, J. Arello, J. R. Helvig, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 63.
  4. O. Simpson, R. H. Kagann, W. F. Herget, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 640.
  5. D. Street, DGMK Berichte 9301, 73 (1993).
  6. T. Eisenmann, DGMK Berichte 9301, 21 (1993).
  7. M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, J. Phys. (Paris) IV 4, 683 (1994).
  8. H. H. Zenzie, P. F. Moulton, Opt. Lett. 19, 963 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. C. Sentell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2266, 557 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Stringat, G. Fabre, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 83, 43 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. R. G. Jaacks, H. Rippel, Appl. Opt. 28, 29 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1994

M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, J. Phys. (Paris) IV 4, 683 (1994).

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, M. el Ajli, R. Bacis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Sentell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2266, 557 (1994).

H. H. Zenzie, P. F. Moulton, Opt. Lett. 19, 963 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Higdon, Appl. Opt. 33, 6422 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. Street, DGMK Berichte 9301, 73 (1993).

T. Eisenmann, DGMK Berichte 9301, 21 (1993).

1992

L. S. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, L. Cirio, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 81, 179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 83, 43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Grant, Opt. Eng. 30, 40 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. B 54, 89 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1984

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz, L. Woeste, Appl. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

Arello, J.

J. L. Hudson, M. J. Thomas, J. Arello, J. R. Helvig, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 63.

Bacis, R.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, M. el Ajli, R. Bacis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Broyer, M.

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz, L. Woeste, Appl. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chevaleyre, J.

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz, L. Woeste, Appl. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cirio, L.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, L. Cirio, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 81, 179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delacretaz, G.

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz, L. Woeste, Appl. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Douard, M.

M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, J. Phys. (Paris) IV 4, 683 (1994).

J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.

Eisenmann, T.

T. Eisenmann, DGMK Berichte 9301, 21 (1993).

el Ajli, M.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, M. el Ajli, R. Bacis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, G.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, M. el Ajli, R. Bacis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, L. Cirio, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 81, 179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 83, 43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, Opt. Eng. 30, 40 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helvig, J. R.

J. L. Hudson, M. J. Thomas, J. Arello, J. R. Helvig, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 63.

Herget, W. F.

O. Simpson, R. H. Kagann, W. F. Herget, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 640.

Higdon, N. S.

Hudson, J. L.

J. L. Hudson, M. J. Thomas, J. Arello, J. R. Helvig, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 63.

Jaacks, R. G.

Kagann, R. H.

O. Simpson, R. H. Kagann, W. F. Herget, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 640.

Kolenda, J.

J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.

Kölsch, H. J.

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. B 54, 89 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

Michaelis, W.

F. A. Theopold, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ.3158, 671 (1992).

Moulton, P. F.

Pique, J. P.

J. P. Pique, Université J. Fourier, Grenoble, France (personal communication, 1994).

Rairoux, P.

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. B 54, 89 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.

Reif, J.

J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.

Rippel, H.

Ross, A.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, L. Cirio, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 81, 179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 83, 43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sentell, J. C.

J. C. Sentell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2266, 557 (1994).

Simpson, O.

O. Simpson, R. H. Kagann, W. F. Herget, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 640.

Street, D.

D. Street, DGMK Berichte 9301, 73 (1993).

Stringat, R.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, M. el Ajli, R. Bacis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, L. Cirio, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 81, 179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 83, 43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Theopold, F. A.

F. A. Theopold, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ.3158, 671 (1992).

Thomas, M. J.

J. L. Hudson, M. J. Thomas, J. Arello, J. R. Helvig, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 63.

Ulbricht, M.

M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, J. Phys. (Paris) IV 4, 683 (1994).

J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.

Weidauer, D.

M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, J. Phys. (Paris) IV 4, 683 (1994).

Weitkamp, C.

F. A. Theopold, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ.3158, 671 (1992).

Weng, C. Y.

Woeste, L.

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz, L. Woeste, Appl. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, J. Phys. (Paris) IV 4, 683 (1994).

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. B 54, 89 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.

Wöste, L.

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. B 54, 89 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zenzie, H. H.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Broyer, J. Chevaleyre, G. Delacretaz, L. Woeste, Appl. Phys. B 35, 31 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kölsch, P. Rairoux, J. P. Wolf, L. Wöste, Appl. Phys. B 54, 89 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, M. el Ajli, R. Bacis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 220, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DGMK Berichte

D. Street, DGMK Berichte 9301, 73 (1993).

T. Eisenmann, DGMK Berichte 9301, 21 (1993).

J. Phys.

M. Douard, J. P. Wolf, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, J. Phys. (Paris) IV 4, 683 (1994).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, L. Cirio, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 81, 179 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Stringat, G. Fabre, A. Ross, Opt. Commun. 83, 43 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. B. Grant, Opt. Eng. 30, 40 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

J. C. Sentell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2266, 557 (1994).

Other

F. A. Theopold, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, in Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ.3158, 671 (1992).

J. P. Wolf, J. Kolenda, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, M. Douard, M. Ulbricht, in Laser in Umweltmesstechnik in Remote Sensing, C. Werner, W. Waidelich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 41–45.

J. L. Hudson, M. J. Thomas, J. Arello, J. R. Helvig, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 63.

O. Simpson, R. H. Kagann, W. F. Herget, in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 640.

J. P. Pique, Université J. Fourier, Grenoble, France (personal communication, 1994).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the FT-DIAL. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of lidar return at a distance of 450 m, exhibiting more than 10 water-vapor absorption lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of lidar returns from three different distances, showing water-vapor concentration profiles.

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