Abstract

Simultaneously reconstructed images of both absorption and scattering coefficients in optically heterogeneous media based on frequency-domain measurements are presented. The images are obtained from absolute measured data by use of a diffusion approximation to light propagation in tissue that is modeled with a finite-element method. Images that have different contrast levels are demonstrated.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, K. M. Yoo, Phys. World 5, 37 (1992).
  2. G. Muller et al., eds., Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, Vol. IS11 of SPIE Institute Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), p. 3.
  3. K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 22, 691 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. L. Barbour, H. Graber, Y. Wang, J. Chang, R. Aronson, Ref. 2, p. 87.
  5. J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. R. Arridge, Ref. 2, p. 35.
  7. J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 1591 (1994).
  8. H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).
  9. M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Opt. Lett. 20, 426 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Weinberg, E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1958).
  11. B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. Tromberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. Tromberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 1591 (1994).

1993 (1)

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, K. M. Yoo, Phys. World 5, 37 (1992).

1990 (1)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, K. M. Yoo, Phys. World 5, 37 (1992).

Aronson, R.

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).

R. L. Barbour, H. Graber, Y. Wang, J. Chang, R. Aronson, Ref. 2, p. 87.

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, Ref. 2, p. 35.

Barbour, R. L.

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).

R. L. Barbour, H. Graber, Y. Wang, J. Chang, R. Aronson, Ref. 2, p. 87.

Boas, D. A.

Chance, B.

Chang, J.

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).

R. L. Barbour, H. Graber, Y. Wang, J. Chang, R. Aronson, Ref. 2, p. 87.

Duncan, M. D.

J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 1591 (1994).

Feng, T.

Graber, H.

R. L. Barbour, H. Graber, Y. Wang, J. Chang, R. Aronson, Ref. 2, p. 87.

Graber, H. L.

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).

Grunbaum, F. A.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R. C.

Ho, P. P.

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, K. M. Yoo, Phys. World 5, 37 (1992).

Jiang, H.

K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 22, 691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohn, P.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubowsky, J.

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).

Mahon, R.

J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 1591 (1994).

McAdams, M. S.

Moon, J. A.

J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 1591 (1994).

O’Leary, M. A.

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 22, 691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 1591 (1994).

Singer, J. R.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

Tromberg, B.

Tsay, T.

Wang, Y.

R. L. Barbour, H. Graber, Y. Wang, J. Chang, R. Aronson, Ref. 2, p. 87.

Weinberg, A. M.

A. M. Weinberg, E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1958).

Wigner, E. P.

A. M. Weinberg, E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1958).

Yodh, A. G.

Yoo, K. M.

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, K. M. Yoo, Phys. World 5, 37 (1992).

Zubelli, J. P.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 22, 691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 19, 1591 (1994).

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Opt. Lett. 20, 426 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

B. W. Pogue, M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. World (1)

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, K. M. Yoo, Phys. World 5, 37 (1992).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

H. L. Graber, J. Chang, J. Lubowsky, R. Aronson, R. L. Barbour, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1888, 372 (1993).

Science (1)

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

S. R. Arridge, Ref. 2, p. 35.

G. Muller et al., eds., Medical Optical Tomography: Functional Imaging and Monitoring, Vol. IS11 of SPIE Institute Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), p. 3.

R. L. Barbour, H. Graber, Y. Wang, J. Chang, R. Aronson, Ref. 2, p. 87.

A. M. Weinberg, E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1958).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental geometry under study, with an off-center object at 3 o’clock. 16 × 16 source and detector pairs are also indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstructed images for a centered object having different contrast levels between the object and the background, where μa = 0.006 mm−1 and μs′ = 0.6 mm−1. (a)–(c) Absorption coefficient images; (d)–(f) diffusion coefficient images. (a), (d) 2:1 contrast level; ( b), (e) 5:1 contrast level; (c), (f ) 10:1 contrast level.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed images for an off-center object having different contrast levels between the object and the background. (a)–(c) Absorption coefficient images; (d)– (f ) diffusion coefficient images. Optical properties are the same as in Fig. 2.

Equations (4)

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· D ( r ) Φ ( r , ω ) - [ μ a ( r ) - i ω / c ] Φ ( r , ω ) = - S ( r , ω ) ,
[ A ] { Φ } = { b } ,
[ A ] { Φ / χ } = { b / χ } - [ A / χ ] { Φ } ,
( J T J + λ I ) Δ χ = J T ( Φ o - Φ c ) ,

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