Abstract

Hollow glass waveguides have been fabricated for the delivery of infrared radiation by chemical vapor deposition methods. A molybdenum film is first deposited inside 700-μm silica tubing by the hydrogen reduction of molybdenum chloride. Then a zinc sulfide or aluminum oxide film is deposited onto the molybdenum layer. These dielectric films enhance the reflectivity, and we observe a reduction in loss for the thin-film combination compared with the molybdenum film alone. The chemical vapor deposition techniques may be extended to the fabrication of hollow guides with multiple dielectric layers that have much lower losses than current single-layer designs.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Harrington, Selected Papers on Infrared Fiber Optics, Vol. 9 of SPIE Milestone Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990).
  2. T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Opt. Lett. 19, 1034 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  4. Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Electron. Lett. 30, 1688 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Croitoru, J. Dror, E. Goldenberg, D. Mendolobic, I. Gannot, U.S. patent4,930,863 (June5, 1990).
  8. Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).
  9. H. O. Pierson, Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Noyes, Park Ridge, Ill., 1992).
  10. C. F. Powell, I. E. Campbell, B. W. Gonser, Vapor-Plating (Wiley, New York, 1962).
  11. W. J. Childs, J. E. Cline, W. M. Kisner, J. Wulff, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 43, 105 (1951).
  12. K. L. Lewis, D. J. Cook, P. B. Roscoe, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 614 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Maruyama, S. Arai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 322 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. Harrington, C. C. Gregory, Opt. Lett. 15, 541 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985).
  19. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Part 2 (Academic, New York, 1990).

1995 (1)

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

1994 (2)

T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Opt. Lett. 19, 1034 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Electron. Lett. 30, 1688 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Maruyama, S. Arai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. L. Lewis, D. J. Cook, P. B. Roscoe, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

W. J. Childs, J. E. Cline, W. M. Kisner, J. Wulff, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 43, 105 (1951).

Abe, S.

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Abel, T.

T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Opt. Lett. 19, 1034 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Electron. Lett. 30, 1688 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Aizawa, M.

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Arai, S.

T. Maruyama, S. Arai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. E.

C. F. Powell, I. E. Campbell, B. W. Gonser, Vapor-Plating (Wiley, New York, 1962).

Childs, W. J.

W. J. Childs, J. E. Cline, W. M. Kisner, J. Wulff, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 43, 105 (1951).

Cline, J. E.

W. J. Childs, J. E. Cline, W. M. Kisner, J. Wulff, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 43, 105 (1951).

Cook, D. J.

K. L. Lewis, D. J. Cook, P. B. Roscoe, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Croitoru, N.

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, E. Goldenberg, D. Mendolobic, I. Gannot, U.S. patent4,930,863 (June5, 1990).

Dror, J.

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, E. Goldenberg, D. Mendolobic, I. Gannot, U.S. patent4,930,863 (June5, 1990).

Gannot, I.

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, E. Goldenberg, D. Mendolobic, I. Gannot, U.S. patent4,930,863 (June5, 1990).

Goldenberg, E.

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, E. Goldenberg, D. Mendolobic, I. Gannot, U.S. patent4,930,863 (June5, 1990).

Gonser, B. W.

C. F. Powell, I. E. Campbell, B. W. Gonser, Vapor-Plating (Wiley, New York, 1962).

Gregory, C. C.

Hamrin, C. E.

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Electron. Lett. 30, 1688 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Opt. Lett. 19, 1034 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Harrington, C. C. Gregory, Opt. Lett. 15, 541 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

J. A. Harrington, Selected Papers on Infrared Fiber Optics, Vol. 9 of SPIE Milestone Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990).

Hirsch, J.

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Electron. Lett. 30, 1688 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Opt. Lett. 19, 1034 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hongo, A.

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Kawakami, S.

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kisner, W. M.

W. J. Childs, J. E. Cline, W. M. Kisner, J. Wulff, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 43, 105 (1951).

Kubota, S.

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Lewis, K. L.

K. L. Lewis, D. J. Cook, P. B. Roscoe, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

T. Maruyama, S. Arai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marzouk, H. A.

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, Y.

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Electron. Lett. 30, 1688 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Mendolobic, D.

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, E. Goldenberg, D. Mendolobic, I. Gannot, U.S. patent4,930,863 (June5, 1990).

Miyagi, M.

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Y. Matsuura, M. Saito, M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 423 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Onodera, S.

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Osawa, M.

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Pierson, H. O.

H. O. Pierson, Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Noyes, Park Ridge, Ill., 1992).

Powell, C. F.

C. F. Powell, I. E. Campbell, B. W. Gonser, Vapor-Plating (Wiley, New York, 1962).

Reucroft, P. J.

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J. D.

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roscoe, P. B.

K. L. Lewis, D. J. Cook, P. B. Roscoe, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Wulff, J.

W. J. Childs, J. E. Cline, W. M. Kisner, J. Wulff, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 43, 105 (1951).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Maruyama, S. Arai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 322 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. Hirsch, J. A. Harrington, Electron. Lett. 30, 1688 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. L. Lewis, D. J. Cook, P. B. Roscoe, J. Cryst. Growth 56, 614 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

Y. Kato, M. Osawa, S. Kubota, M. Miyagi, S. Abe, M. Aizawa, S. Onodera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2396, 101 (1995).

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. S. Kim, H. A. Marzouk, P. J. Reucroft, J. D. Robertson, C. E. Hamrin, Thin Solid Films 230, 156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Soc. Metals (1)

W. J. Childs, J. E. Cline, W. M. Kisner, J. Wulff, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 43, 105 (1951).

Other (7)

J. A. Harrington, Selected Papers on Infrared Fiber Optics, Vol. 9 of SPIE Milestone Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1985).

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Part 2 (Academic, New York, 1990).

H. O. Pierson, Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Noyes, Park Ridge, Ill., 1992).

C. F. Powell, I. E. Campbell, B. W. Gonser, Vapor-Plating (Wiley, New York, 1962).

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, E. Goldenberg, D. Mendolobic, I. Gannot, U.S. patent4,930,863 (June5, 1990).

Y. Matsuura, T. Abel, J. A. Harrington, “Optical properties of small-bore hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CVD apparatus for deposition of the ZnS and Al2O3 films inside hollow silica tubing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loss spectra of the ZnS/Mo-coated and the Moonly coated glass waveguides (700-μm inside diameter, 10-cm length). The thin solid curve is the theoretical loss of the ZnS/Mo guide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Loss spectra of the Al2O3/Mo-coated glass waveguides (700-μm inside diameter, 10-cm length). The thin solid curve is the calculated spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Attenuation of the multiple- and single-dielectric-coated waveguides for Er:YAG laser energy for different bore sizes. The data for the three-layer dielectric stack upon Mo is the calculated loss that shows that we may expect a 10-fold decrease in attenuation over single-layer designs.

Equations (2)

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2 MoCl 5 5 H 2 2 Mo + 10 HCl .
Zn + H 2 S ZnS + H 2 .

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