Abstract

We show that a quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial soliton forms a waveguide structure in the bulk of a photorefractive material. Although the optically induced waveguide is formed by a very low-power (microwatts) soliton beam, it can guide a powerful (watt) beam of a longer wavelength at which the medium is nonphotosensitive. Furthermore, the waveguide survives, either in the dark or when guiding the longer-wavelength beam, for a long time after the soliton beam is turned off. We take advantage of the solitons’ property of evolution from a relatively broad input beam into a narrow channel and show that the soliton induces a tapered waveguide (an optical funnel) that improves the coupling efficiency of light into the waveguiding structure.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. De La Fuente, A. Barthelemy, C. Froehly, Opt. Lett. 16, 793 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Luther-Davies, X. Yang, Opt. Lett. 17, 1755 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Bosshard, P. V. Mamyshev, G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 19, 90 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchinson, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, Opt. Lett. 19, 1714 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.
  20. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 20, 1764 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 20, 1764 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (9)

Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bosshard, P. V. Mamyshev, G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 19, 90 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchinson, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, M. I. Carvalho, Opt. Lett. 19, 1714 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies, X. Yang, Opt. Lett. 17, 1755 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Aitchinson, J. S.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchinson, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

Bashaw, M.

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosshard, C.

Carvalho, M. I.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Crosignani, B.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Fuente, R.

DiPorto, P.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Engin, D.

Fejer, M. M.

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, C.

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.

Klein, M. B.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.

Luther-Davies, B.

Mamyshev, P. V.

C. Bosshard, P. V. Mamyshev, G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 19, 90 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchinson, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.

Morin, M.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.

Segev, M.

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 20, 1764 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J.

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. R.

Stegeman, G. I.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchinson, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Bosshard, P. V. Mamyshev, G. I. Stegeman, Opt. Lett. 19, 90 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, S.

Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.

Taya, M.

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, S. R. Singh, M. I. Carvalho, D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 20, 1764 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, A.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchinson, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V.

Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.

Yang, X.

Yariv, A.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1195 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, G. Duree, G. Salamo, E. Sharp, Opt. Lett. 19, 1296 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Crosignani, M. Segev, D. Engin, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Observations of steady-state self-focusing effects in Bi12TiO20 were presented byM. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchinson, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Photon. News (2)

M. Segev, G. Salamo, G. Duree, M. Morin, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Opt. Photon. News 5(12), 9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, A. Yariv, G. Salamo, G. Duree, J. Shultz, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, Opt. Photon. News 4(12), 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).This observation was also reported by G. C. Valley, M. Segev, A. Yariv, M. Taya, M. Fejer, M. Bashaw, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, “Spatial photovoltaic and screening solitons in photorefractive materails,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nonlinear Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, M. B. Klein, B. A. Wechsler, presented at Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, Tex., October 4–10, 1994, paper WD4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Profiles of the red He–Ne beam at the entrance face of the crystal (left), at the exit face of the crystal in the normal diffraction regime (no voltage, middle), and when guided by the dark soliton (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lifetime of the soliton-induced waveguide, measured from the moment the soliton is blocked, as a function of the guided beam intensity for a 1319-nm Nd:YAG beam. The lifetime follows an accurate inverse-intensity dependence.

Plate I
Plate I

Top-view color photographs of (a) the dark soliton and (b) the normally diffracting dark notch when the voltage applied to the crystal is set to zero.

Plate II
Plate II

Top-view color photographs of (a) the guided red He-Ne beam and (b) the red beam in the normal diffraction regime.

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