Abstract

We have discovered experimentally that soliton–soliton collisions in wavelength division multiplexing significantly alter the polarization states of the colliding solitons. Analysis shows that the change in polarization is according to the cross product of the Stokes vectors of the colliding solitons. Birefringence of the fiber spans can turn this polarization scattering into a significant source of timing jitter.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Heismann, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 690 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. The factor 1.76 is just τ/tc=2 cosh-1 2, where τ is the soliton intensity FWHM and tc is the soliton unit time. For a complete discussion of soliton units, seeL. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986), App.
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. V. Manakov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 65, 505 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248 (1974)].
  7. L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Opt. Lett. 19, 704 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 19, 2083 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 19, 375 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

1993 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

The factor 1.76 is just τ/tc=2 cosh-1 2, where τ is the soliton intensity FWHM and tc is the soliton unit time. For a complete discussion of soliton units, seeL. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986), App.
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. V. Manakov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 65, 505 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248 (1974)].

Bergano, N. S.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. G.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 19, 375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

The factor 1.76 is just τ/tc=2 cosh-1 2, where τ is the soliton intensity FWHM and tc is the soliton unit time. For a complete discussion of soliton units, seeL. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986), App.
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. T.

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 690 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

The factor 1.76 is just τ/tc=2 cosh-1 2, where τ is the soliton intensity FWHM and tc is the soliton unit time. For a complete discussion of soliton units, seeL. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986), App.
[CrossRef]

Lichtman, E.

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

Manakov, S. V.

S. V. Manakov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 65, 505 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248 (1974)].

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Opt. Lett. 19, 704 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mamyshev, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 19, 2083 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 19, 375 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

The factor 1.76 is just τ/tc=2 cosh-1 2, where τ is the soliton intensity FWHM and tc is the soliton unit time. For a complete discussion of soliton units, seeL. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986), App.
[CrossRef]

Neubelt, M. J.

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, M. J. Neubelt, Opt. Lett. 19, 704 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, E. Lichtman, M. J. Neubelt, G. T. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 29, 910 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

The factor 1.76 is just τ/tc=2 cosh-1 2, where τ is the soliton intensity FWHM and tc is the soliton unit time. For a complete discussion of soliton units, seeL. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, M. N. Islam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 157 (1986), App.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 690 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

S. V. Manakov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 65, 505 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248 (1974)].

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus for polarization demultiplexing. The LiNO3 polarization controller and electronic driver, with a combined response time of less than 1 ms (actually much faster than necessary), serves to convert the nominally orthogonal 5-Gbit/s subchannels into two linear polarizations that can be separated by a beam splitter. The required error signal is just the magnitude of the recovered clock signal at 5 GHz (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured degree of polarization for a given wavelength channel as a function of distance. No WDM: Only one channel present on the transmission line. WDM: Two channels present on the line. Channel separations: solid curve, 0.6 nm; dashed curve, 1.2 nm; dotted curve, 1.8 nm. In all cases the channels were initially copolarized.

Equations (8)

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U = ( u x u y ) ,             U = ( u x * , u y * ) .
- i U z = 1 2 2 U t 2 + ( U U ) U .
- i U a z = 1 2 2 U a t 2 + ( U a U a ) U a + ( U b U b ) U a + ( U b U a ) U b .
S i = U σ i U ,             i = 1 , 2 , 3 ,
σ 1 = [ 1 0 0 - 1 ] ,             σ 2 = [ 0 1 1 0 ] ,             σ 3 = [ 0 - i i 0 ] .
S a z = S a × S b .
U = U ^ A sech [ A ( t + Ω z ) ] exp [ i z ( A 2 - Ω 2 ) / 2 - i Ω t ] ,
Δ θ a 1.78 Δ ν b Δ ν a b ,

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