Abstract

Optical fibers were used to induce fluorescence by means of two-photon absorption in fluorophores. The effect, studied in a solution of 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, demonstrated that a single-mode fiber is a more efficient two-photon excitation source than a multimode fiber. This was shown with three different fibers.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. P. Haugland, Molecular Probes Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Ore., 1992).
  2. R. Y. Tsien, Methods Cell Biol. Pt. B 30, 127 (1989); T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kapuscinski, B. Skoczyla, Nucleic Acids Res. 5, 3775 (1978); L. Masotti, P. Cavatorta, M. Avitable, M. L. Barcellona, J. Von Berger, N. Ragusa, Ital. J. Biochem. 31, 90 (1982); J. Kapuscinski, W. Szer, Nucleic Acids Res. 6, 3519 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1992); P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 851 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. B. Thompson, J. R. Lackowicz, Anal. Chem. 65, 853 (1993); D. Wise, L. Wingard, eds., Biosensors with Fiber Optics (Humana, Clifton, N.J., 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Our preliminary results were first reported byLagoA.ObeidatA.KaplanA.KhurginJ.ShkolnikovP.SternM., in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThI13.

1994

J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. B. Thompson, J. R. Lackowicz, Anal. Chem. 65, 853 (1993); D. Wise, L. Wingard, eds., Biosensors with Fiber Optics (Humana, Clifton, N.J., 1991).
[CrossRef]

1992

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1992); P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Y. Tsien, Methods Cell Biol. Pt. B 30, 127 (1989); T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1984).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. Kapuscinski, B. Skoczyla, Nucleic Acids Res. 5, 3775 (1978); L. Masotti, P. Cavatorta, M. Avitable, M. L. Barcellona, J. Von Berger, N. Ragusa, Ital. J. Biochem. 31, 90 (1982); J. Kapuscinski, W. Szer, Nucleic Acids Res. 6, 3519 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1992); P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haugland, R. P.

R. P. Haugland, Molecular Probes Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Ore., 1992).

Kapuscinski, J.

J. Kapuscinski, B. Skoczyla, Nucleic Acids Res. 5, 3775 (1978); L. Masotti, P. Cavatorta, M. Avitable, M. L. Barcellona, J. Von Berger, N. Ragusa, Ital. J. Biochem. 31, 90 (1982); J. Kapuscinski, W. Szer, Nucleic Acids Res. 6, 3519 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koen, P. A.

J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kusba, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lackowicz, J. R.

R. B. Thompson, J. R. Lackowicz, Anal. Chem. 65, 853 (1993); D. Wise, L. Wingard, eds., Biosensors with Fiber Optics (Humana, Clifton, N.J., 1991).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skoczyla, B.

J. Kapuscinski, B. Skoczyla, Nucleic Acids Res. 5, 3775 (1978); L. Masotti, P. Cavatorta, M. Avitable, M. L. Barcellona, J. Von Berger, N. Ragusa, Ital. J. Biochem. 31, 90 (1982); J. Kapuscinski, W. Szer, Nucleic Acids Res. 6, 3519 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1992); P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Szmacinski, H.

J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. B.

R. B. Thompson, J. R. Lackowicz, Anal. Chem. 65, 853 (1993); D. Wise, L. Wingard, eds., Biosensors with Fiber Optics (Humana, Clifton, N.J., 1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsien, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsien, Methods Cell Biol. Pt. B 30, 127 (1989); T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1984).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1992); P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

R. B. Thompson, J. R. Lackowicz, Anal. Chem. 65, 853 (1993); D. Wise, L. Wingard, eds., Biosensors with Fiber Optics (Humana, Clifton, N.J., 1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc.

J. R. Lakowicz, P. A. Koen, H. Szmacinski, I. Gryczynski, J. Kusba, J. Fluoresc. 4, 117 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Methods Cell Biol. Pt. B

R. Y. Tsien, Methods Cell Biol. Pt. B 30, 127 (1989); T. Wilson, C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1984).
[CrossRef]

Nucleic Acids Res.

J. Kapuscinski, B. Skoczyla, Nucleic Acids Res. 5, 3775 (1978); L. Masotti, P. Cavatorta, M. Avitable, M. L. Barcellona, J. Von Berger, N. Ragusa, Ital. J. Biochem. 31, 90 (1982); J. Kapuscinski, W. Szer, Nucleic Acids Res. 6, 3519 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1992); P. F. Curley, A. I. Ferguson, J. G. White, W. B. Amos, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 851 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

Our preliminary results were first reported byLagoA.ObeidatA.KaplanA.KhurginJ.ShkolnikovP.SternM., in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThI13.

R. P. Haugland, Molecular Probes Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Ore., 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry used to deliver the laser light and collect the fluorescence signal. The dye-laser beam is coupled into the pump fiber and a 10× microscope objective, the fiber tip is immersed in the dye solution close to the wall of the cuvette, and then the image conduit collects the light on the other side of the cuvette wall and delivers it to the monochromator. PMT, photomultiplier tube. The detected spectrum of DAPI is also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence intensity versus pump intensity obtained for the different optical fibers. The solid curves are quadratic fits to the data. Small linear and constant terms exist in the fitted curve owing to nonideal fundamental wavelength suppression in our monochromator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence intensity versus pump intensity in the presence of scatterers. The solid curves are quadratic fits to the data. The fluorescence signal decreases for all but the smallest fiber. The ldx suffix refers to the presence of the scatterer Ludox.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of the Three Fibers

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