Abstract

We report the observation and characterization of a resonance effect in gratings fabricated on GaAs substrates by use of a crystallographically preferential wet chemical etch that terminates at the (111) family of planes. Also, we demonstrate an in situ etch-monitoring study of the diffraction characteristics of these gratings. The light intensity in the first order of diffraction was monitored in Littrow reflection during etching at 632.8-and 543.5-mm wavelengths. Scanning-electron microscopy was performed on several samples to correlate the etch depth with diffraction efficiency. The variation of diffraction intensity with depth showed a narrow peak at a shallower grating depth and a broader peak at a larger grating depth. These diffraction characteristics are explained on the basis of a competitive interaction between the resonance effect of the incident optical mode and the magnitude of the first Fourier component of the grating profile that primarily couples the incident and diffracted optical modes.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Sarathy, R. A. Mayer, K. Jung, S. Unnikrishan, D.-L. Kwong, J. C. Campbell, Opt. Lett. 19, 798 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W.-T. Tsang, S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2163 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H.-W. Yen, Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1976).
  7. T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W.-T. Tsang, S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2163 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Gallatin, G. M.

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gnall, R. P.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gratrix, E. J.

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K.

Koch, T. L.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Koren, U.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

Lambert, S. A.

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Macomber, S. H.

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, R. A.

Miller, B. I.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mott, J. S.

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O’Dwyer, S. L.

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sarathy, J.

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W.-T.

W.-T. Tsang, S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2163 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishan, S.

Wang, S.

W.-T. Tsang, S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2163 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H.-W.

H.-W. Yen, Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1976).

Young, M.

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. C. Alferness, L. L. Buhl, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Young, T. L. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2573 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Macomber, J. S. Mott, R. J. Noll, G. M. Gallatin, E. J. Gratrix, S. L. O’Dwyer, S. A. Lambert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 472 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Electron Lett. (1)

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, Electron Lett. 24, 1431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, R. D. Burnham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 422 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W.-T. Tsang, S. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2163 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, Proc. IEEE 73, 894 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H.-W. Yen, Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for in situ etch monitoring in Littrow reflection. DMM, digital multimeter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical Littrow diffraction intensity profiles for the etching of 0.63-μm periodicity gratings at (a) 543.5-nm and (b) 632.8-nm wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning-electron micrographs of the progression of etch profiles as a function of etch time for in situ monitoring at the 543.5-nm wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electric field in the grating region for different depths, showing the resonance effect and the first-order Fourier perturbation at the 632.8-nm wavelength for gratings of 0.63-μm periodicity.

Equations (1)

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2 a d ( x ) x 2 + [ k 0 2 n 0 2 ( x ) - ( k z + 2 * π Λ ) 2 ] a d ( x ) = - k 0 2 A 1 ( x ) a i ( x ) ,

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