Abstract

We have fabricated a novel optically addressed spatial light modulator by using bacteriorhodopsin immobilized in a polymer thin film. This incoherent-to-coherent converter is based on photoinduced anisotropy, as distinguished from previously reported devices based on photochroism in bacteriorhodopsin. This system is capable of a resolution of 114 lines/mm with a contrast ratio of 100:1.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Fisher, Int. J. Optoelectron. 5, 125 (1990).
  2. W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolini, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 505, 215 (1979).
  3. W. Stoeckenius, Sci. Am. 234, 38 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bouas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, p. 954.
  5. Q. W. Song, C. Zhang, R. Gross, R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 18, 775 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, Opt. Lett. 16, 651 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Huang, K. H. Wagner, Appl. Opt. 32, 1888 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
  9. R. J. Cherry, U. Muller, M. P. Heyn, J. Mol. Biol. 117, 607 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Wan, Q. Song, C. K. Johnson, Chem. Phys. Lett. 210, 94 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. R. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Rev. 2, 1 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Melles Griot, Optics Guide (1990), Vol. 5, p. 16.
  13. R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 186 (1992).
  14. A photochromic image is present at the bR film, but the blue filter in the setup removes this image at the CCD detector.
  15. C. Bräuchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, Adv. Mater. 3, 420 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1995

L. R. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Rev. 2, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 186 (1992).

1991

1990

A. D. Fisher, Int. J. Optoelectron. 5, 125 (1990).

Melles Griot, Optics Guide (1990), Vol. 5, p. 16.

1985

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).

1979

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolini, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 505, 215 (1979).

1977

R. J. Cherry, U. Muller, M. P. Heyn, J. Mol. Biol. 117, 607 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

W. Stoeckenius, Sci. Am. 234, 38 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birge, R.

Birge, R. R.

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 186 (1992).

Bogomolini, R. A.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolini, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 505, 215 (1979).

Brauchle, C.

Bräuchle, C.

C. Bräuchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, Adv. Mater. 3, 420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bouas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, p. 954.

Can Izgi, K.

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 186 (1992).

Cherry, R. J.

R. J. Cherry, U. Muller, M. P. Heyn, J. Mol. Biol. 117, 607 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, A. D.

A. D. Fisher, Int. J. Optoelectron. 5, 125 (1990).

Griot, Melles

Melles Griot, Optics Guide (1990), Vol. 5, p. 16.

Gross, R.

Gross, R. B.

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 186 (1992).

Hampp, N.

R. Thoma, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, D. Oesterhelt, Opt. Lett. 16, 651 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bräuchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, Adv. Mater. 3, 420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bouas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, p. 954.

Heyn, M. P.

R. J. Cherry, U. Muller, M. P. Heyn, J. Mol. Biol. 117, 607 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, T.

Imam, H.

L. R. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Rev. 2, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. K.

C. Wan, Q. Song, C. K. Johnson, Chem. Phys. Lett. 210, 94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lindvold, L. R.

L. R. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Rev. 2, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lozier, R. H.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolini, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 505, 215 (1979).

Marrakchi, A.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).

Muller, U.

R. J. Cherry, U. Muller, M. P. Heyn, J. Mol. Biol. 117, 607 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oesterhelt, D.

Psaltis, D.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).

Ramanujam, P. S.

L. R. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Rev. 2, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

C. Wan, Q. Song, C. K. Johnson, Chem. Phys. Lett. 210, 94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q. W.

Stoeckenius, W.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolini, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 505, 215 (1979).

W. Stoeckenius, Sci. Am. 234, 38 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanguay, A. R.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).

Thoma, R.

Wagner, K. H.

Wan, C.

C. Wan, Q. Song, C. K. Johnson, Chem. Phys. Lett. 210, 94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).

Zhang, C.

Adv. Mater.

C. Bräuchle, N. Hampp, D. Oesterhelt, Adv. Mater. 3, 420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biochem. Biophys. Acta

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolini, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 505, 215 (1979).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

C. Wan, Q. Song, C. K. Johnson, Chem. Phys. Lett. 210, 94 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron.

A. D. Fisher, Int. J. Optoelectron. 5, 125 (1990).

J. Mol. Biol.

R. J. Cherry, U. Muller, M. P. Heyn, J. Mol. Biol. 117, 607 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

L. R. Lindvold, H. Imam, P. S. Ramanujam, Opt. Rev. 2, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Optics Guide

Melles Griot, Optics Guide (1990), Vol. 5, p. 16.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 186 (1992).

Sci. Am.

W. Stoeckenius, Sci. Am. 234, 38 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. Hampp, C. Bräuchle, in Photochromism: Molecules and Systems, H. Dürr, H. Bouas-Laurent, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), Chap. 29, p. 954.

A photochromic image is present at the bR film, but the blue filter in the setup removes this image at the CCD detector.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified model of the photocycle in light-adapted bR. (Adapted and modified from Ref. 3.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for incoherent-to-coherent conversion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image at CCD showing the resolution chart through the crossed Glan–Thomson polarizers at 1:1. Note that the image is due to changes in the read-light polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Enlarged section of the image showing the high-resolution elements of the U.S. Air Force test target.

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