Abstract

We measure the birefringence Δβ = βTMβTE of LiNbO3:Ti single-mode strip waveguides at λ = 1.54 μm by scanning a polarization-coupling perturbation along the guide and observing the variations of output polarization. With electro-optic and thermo-optic probing, beat lengths of 20 μm to 20 mm are measured with a resolution of up to δβ) ≈ 10−3 cm−1. Influences of temperature and strip width on Δβ are observed.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 490 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Trutna, D. W. Dolfi, C. A. Flory, Opt. Lett. 18, 28 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Simon, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Chinone, R. Ulrich, Opt. Lett. 6, 16 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Eckhardt, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 284 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, Handbook of Electronic Materials (IFI-Plenum, New York, 1972).

1993 (3)

I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Trutna, D. W. Dolfi, C. A. Flory, Opt. Lett. 18, 28 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Eckhardt, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 284 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Simon, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Carr, A. D.

I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chinone, N.

Croston, I. R.

I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D. W.

Eckhardt, R.

R. Eckhardt, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 284 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flory, C. A.

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Milek, J. T.

J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, Handbook of Electronic Materials (IFI-Plenum, New York, 1972).

Neuberger, M.

J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, Handbook of Electronic Materials (IFI-Plenum, New York, 1972).

Ostrowsky, D. B.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Parson, N. J.

I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, S. N.

I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A. M.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sevin, J.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Simon, A.

A. Simon, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Trutna, W. R.

Ulrich, R.

R. Eckhardt, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 284 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Chinone, R. Ulrich, Opt. Lett. 6, 16 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Simon, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ville, L. J. St.

I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. C. Alferness, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 513 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 490 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, J. Sevin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 553 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Simon, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Eckhardt, R. Ulrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 284 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

I. R. Croston, A. D. Carr, N. J. Parson, S. N. Radcliffe, L. J. St. Ville, Electron. Lett. 29, 157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

J. T. Milek, M. Neuberger, Handbook of Electronic Materials (IFI-Plenum, New York, 1972).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup, (b) electro-optic coupling by a knife-edge electrode, (c) thermo-optic coupling by heating a spot on the crystal surface. POL’s, polarizers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beat signal recorded by electro-optic perturbation of a Z-propagating guide (s = 10 μm) on Y-cut Ti:LiNbO3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beat signal recorded by thermo-optic perturbation of an X-propagating guide (s = 12 μm) on Z-cut Ti:LiNbO3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beat length Λ(s) of X-propagating waveguides on Z-cut Ti:LiNbO3 versus the width s of the Ti strip.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a 1 ( L ) = ( 1 + i c 11 ) a 1 ( L ) + i c 12 exp [ i Δ β ( L - z 0 ) ] a 2 ( L ) ,
a 2 ( L ) = i c 21 exp [ - i Δ β ( L - z 0 ) ] a 1 ( L ) + ( 1 + i c 22 ) a 2 ( L ) .
c m n = k 0 2 2 β F m * ( x , y ) ˜ ( x , y , ζ ) × F n ( x , y ) exp [ i ( β m - β n ) ζ ] d x d y d ζ .
p I ( z 0 ) = a I ( L ) 2 = p ¯ I [ 1 + 2 c 12 sin ( Δ β z 0 ) ] .

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