Abstract

We have designed, fabricated, and tested a blazed artificial dielectric transmission grating in fused quartz for use at the 633-nm wavelength. By locally varying the index, using fabricated two-dimensional arrays of dielectric cylinders, we can achieve a desired phase modulation to produce a diffractive phase element in one processing step. The effective index depends on the fill fraction of the cylinders.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. H. Ragiun, G. M. Morris, Appl. Opt. 32, 1154 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Enger, S. K. Case, Appl. Opt. 22, 3220 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. K. Gaylord, W. E. Baird, M. G. Moharam, Appl. Opt. 25, 4562 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).
  5. E. B. Grann, M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2695 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 706.
  7. J. L. Jackson, S. R. Coriell, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2349 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).
  9. S. R. Coriell, J. L. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4733 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Joubert, G. S. Oehrlein, Y. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 658 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

E. B. Grann, M. G. Moharam, D. A. Pommet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Joubert, G. S. Oehrlein, Y. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

1968 (2)

S. R. Coriell, J. L. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4733 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackson, S. R. Coriell, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2349 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Babin, S.

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

Baird, W. E.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 706.

Case, S. K.

Coriell, S. R.

J. L. Jackson, S. R. Coriell, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2349 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Coriell, J. L. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4733 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Enger, R. C.

Gaylord, T. K.

Grann, E. B.

Haidner, H.

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

Jackson, J. L.

J. L. Jackson, S. R. Coriell, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2349 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Coriell, J. L. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4733 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, O.

O. Joubert, G. S. Oehrlein, Y. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kipfer, P.

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G. M.

Oehrlein, G. S.

O. Joubert, G. S. Oehrlein, Y. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Ragiun, D. H.

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Sheridan, J. T.

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

Stork, W.

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

Streibl, N.

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 706.

Zhang, Y.

O. Joubert, G. S. Oehrlein, Y. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. L. Jackson, S. R. Coriell, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2349 (1968).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Coriell, J. L. Jackson, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4733 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

O. Joubert, G. S. Oehrlein, Y. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

S. Babin, H. Haidner, P. Kipfer, J. T. Sheridan, W. Stork, N. Streibl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 202 (1992).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Other (1)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 706.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bounds on the effective index derived from a square subwavelength array of square quartz pillars as a function of the ratio of the pillar size to the period.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bounds on the effective index derived from a square subwavelength array of square holes in quartz as a function of the ratio of the hole size to the period.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning-electron micrograph of one period of the artificial dielectric grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiencies for both polarizations for the orders from −7 to 7.

Equations (5)

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n TE 2 = f 1 n 1 2 + f 2 n 2 2 ,
n TM - 2 = f 1 n 1 - 2 + f 2 n 2 - 2 ,
n z = [ ( 1 - f x f y ) n 1 2 + f x f y n 2 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
n upp , x = [ 1 - f x n 1 2 + f x f y n 2 2 + ( 1 - f y ) n 1 2 ] - 1 / 2 .
n low , x = [ ( 1 - f y ) n 1 2 + f y f x / n 2 2 + ( 1 - f x ) / n 1 2 ] 1 / 2 .

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