Abstract

Using a vibrating opaque metallic tip, which periodically and locally modifies the electromagnetic field distribution of a diffraction spot focused onto a sample surface through a microscope objective lens, we have observed optical resolution better than the diffraction limit both with topographical features and with purely optical ones. This procedure simultaneously generates a reflection-mode near-field optical signal and a tapping-mode atomic force microscope signal and can therefore map independently the topography and the optical properties of a specimen.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Binning, H. Quate, Phys. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds., Proceedings of the Workshop on Near Field Optics, NATO ASI Series (NATO, Brussels, 1993).
  5. A. C. Boccara, MRT contract 88 P0249, (Paris, France, 1988).
  6. H. K. Wickramasinghe, C. C. Williams, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” U.S. patent4,947,034 (August7, 1989).
  7. U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Gleyzes, “Contribution à l’amélioration de la résolution en microscopie optique: profilométrie différentielle picométrique et imagerie en champ proche,” Ph.D. dissertation (UniversitéParis XI, Paris, 1993).
  9. P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, R. Bachelot, presented at Second International Conference on Near Field Optics, Raleigh, N.C., 1993; Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, presented at Conférence du Cercle Français des Microscopies de Champ Proche, Aix, France, 1994; Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Inouye, S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. H. Synge, Philos. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).
  14. P. Gleyzes, P. K. Kuo, A. C. Boccara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2989 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller, V. B. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290, L688 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Betzig, M. Icaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1994

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye, S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller, V. B. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290, L688 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. Gleyzes, P. K. Kuo, A. C. Boccara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2989 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Betzig, M. Icaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

C. Binning, H. Quate, Phys. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1928

E. H. Synge, Philos. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Bachelot, R.

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, R. Bachelot, presented at Second International Conference on Near Field Optics, Raleigh, N.C., 1993; Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, presented at Conférence du Cercle Français des Microscopies de Champ Proche, Aix, France, 1994; Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, M. Icaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Binning, C.

C. Binning, H. Quate, Phys. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

P. Gleyzes, P. K. Kuo, A. C. Boccara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2989 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, presented at Conférence du Cercle Français des Microscopies de Champ Proche, Aix, France, 1994; Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, R. Bachelot, presented at Second International Conference on Near Field Optics, Raleigh, N.C., 1993; Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Boccara, MRT contract 88 P0249, (Paris, France, 1988).

De Grooth, B. G.

CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Elings, V. B.

Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller, V. B. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290, L688 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, U. Ch.

U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, Ch.

C. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gleyzes, P.

P. Gleyzes, P. K. Kuo, A. C. Boccara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2989 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, presented at Conférence du Cercle Français des Microscopies de Champ Proche, Aix, France, 1994; Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Gleyzes, “Contribution à l’amélioration de la résolution en microscopie optique: profilométrie différentielle picométrique et imagerie en champ proche,” Ph.D. dissertation (UniversitéParis XI, Paris, 1993).

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, R. Bachelot, presented at Second International Conference on Near Field Optics, Raleigh, N.C., 1993; Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Icaacson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Icaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Innis, D.

Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller, V. B. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290, L688 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

Kawata, S.

Kjoller, K.

Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller, V. B. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290, L688 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. K.

P. Gleyzes, P. K. Kuo, A. C. Boccara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2989 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, M. Icaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Putman, CA.J.

CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quate, H.

C. Binning, H. Quate, Phys. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rohrer, H.

C. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, Philos. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Van der Werf, K. O.

CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N. F.

CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weibel, E.

C. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Wickramasinghe, C. C. Williams, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” U.S. patent4,947,034 (August7, 1989).

Williams, C. C.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, C. C. Williams, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” U.S. patent4,947,034 (August7, 1989).

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Q.

Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller, V. B. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290, L688 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Gleyzes, P. K. Kuo, A. C. Boccara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2989 (1991).
[CrossRef]

CA.J. Putman, K. O. Van der Werf, B. G. De Grooth, N. F. Van Hulst, J. Greve, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2454 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, M. Icaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Mag.

E. H. Synge, Philos. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Phys. Lett.

C. Binning, H. Quate, Phys. Lett. 56, 930 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. Lett.

Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller, V. B. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290, L688 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Gleyzes, “Contribution à l’amélioration de la résolution en microscopie optique: profilométrie différentielle picométrique et imagerie en champ proche,” Ph.D. dissertation (UniversitéParis XI, Paris, 1993).

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, R. Bachelot, presented at Second International Conference on Near Field Optics, Raleigh, N.C., 1993; Ultramicroscopy 57, 318 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, presented at Conférence du Cercle Français des Microscopies de Champ Proche, Aix, France, 1994; Microsc. Microanal. Microstruct. 5, 389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds., Proceedings of the Workshop on Near Field Optics, NATO ASI Series (NATO, Brussels, 1993).

A. C. Boccara, MRT contract 88 P0249, (Paris, France, 1988).

H. K. Wickramasinghe, C. C. Williams, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” U.S. patent4,947,034 (August7, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bottom: Principle of our SNOM. Oscillating tip (diameter ~0.1 μm) is near the sample surface in the presence of the converging beam from the microscope objective (spot diameter ~1 μm). Top: Diagram of the experimental setup. PZT, piezoelectric transducer; HV, high-voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(c), (f ) Test samples; one or two grooves engraved by x-ray lithography. At the bottom of each groove (Si), the optical reflection coefficient is three times smaller than that of the surrounding material (Au). (a), (b), (d), (e) Near-field images of the test samples. One groove: (a) relief determined by AFM, (b) SNOM (amplitude). Two grooves: (d) AFM, (e) SNOM (amplitude).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SNOM profile of a 100-nm-wide Si groove surrounded by Au (raw data).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profiles of an optical step on a physically flat surface (from GaAlxAs to GaAs). Curve (a), AFM (×100 nm); curve (b), optical far field (×0.1 V); curve (c), SNOM (amplitude, mV).

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