Abstract

A variation of particle image velocimetry is described that uses a third, unequally spaced, laser pulse to resolve the direction of a velocity vector extracted from an image. The use of a CCD camera makes the complete process electronic and therefore quicker and more convenient. The analysis method produces correlation functions with fewer noise correlations, resulting in less vector drop-out.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, Nature (London) 270, 45 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 23, 1690 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. D. Dudderar, R. Meynart, P. G. Simpkins, Opt. Lasers Eng. 9, 163 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. D. Keane, R. J. Adrian, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 1202 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Adrian, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 23, 261 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Lourenco, A. Krothapalli, Exp. Fluids 5, 29 (1987).
  7. C. E. Willert, M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Schmidt, F. Löffler, Exp. Fluids 14, 296 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 25, 3855 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, Exp. Fluids 6, 119 (1988).
  11. C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 27, 4216 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Grant, A. Liu, Exp. Fluids 10, 71 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. J. Lawson, N. A. Halliwell, J. M. Coupland, Appl. Opt. 33, 4241 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Reeves, N. J. Lawson, N. A. Halliwell, J. M. Coupland, Appl. Opt. 34, 194 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. J. Stucky, E. Nino, B. Gajdeczko, P. G. Felton, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 8, 305 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. P. Goss, M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, J. Laser Appl. 3, 36 (1991).
  19. M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, R. D. Hancock, Exp. Fluids 16, 263 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. A. Adamczyk, L. Rimai, Exp. Fluids 6, 373 (1988).
  21. B. Khalighi, Exp. Fluids 7, 142 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1995

1994

N. J. Lawson, N. A. Halliwell, J. M. Coupland, Appl. Opt. 33, 4241 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Stucky, E. Nino, B. Gajdeczko, P. G. Felton, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 8, 305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, R. D. Hancock, Exp. Fluids 16, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Schmidt, F. Löffler, Exp. Fluids 14, 296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. J. Adrian, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 23, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Willert, M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, J. Laser Appl. 3, 36 (1991).

1990

I. Grant, A. Liu, Exp. Fluids 10, 71 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Keane, R. J. Adrian, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 1202 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

B. Khalighi, Exp. Fluids 7, 142 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. A. Adamczyk, L. Rimai, Exp. Fluids 6, 373 (1988).

T. D. Dudderar, R. Meynart, P. G. Simpkins, Opt. Lasers Eng. 9, 163 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, Exp. Fluids 6, 119 (1988).

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 27, 4216 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

1986

1984

1977

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, Nature (London) 270, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Adamczyk, A. A.

A. A. Adamczyk, L. Rimai, Exp. Fluids 6, 373 (1988).

Adrian, R. J.

R. J. Adrian, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 23, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Keane, R. J. Adrian, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 1202 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, Exp. Fluids 6, 119 (1988).

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 27, 4216 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 25, 3855 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 23, 1690 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allano, D.

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coupland, J. M.

Dudderar, T. D.

T. D. Dudderar, R. Meynart, P. G. Simpkins, Opt. Lasers Eng. 9, 163 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, Nature (London) 270, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Felton, P. G.

M. J. Stucky, E. Nino, B. Gajdeczko, P. G. Felton, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 8, 305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gajdeczko, B.

M. J. Stucky, E. Nino, B. Gajdeczko, P. G. Felton, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 8, 305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gharib, M.

C. E. Willert, M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goss, L. P.

M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, R. D. Hancock, Exp. Fluids 16, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, J. Laser Appl. 3, 36 (1991).

Grant, I.

I. Grant, A. Liu, Exp. Fluids 10, 71 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Halliwell, N. A.

Hancock, R. D.

M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, R. D. Hancock, Exp. Fluids 16, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keane, R. D.

R. D. Keane, R. J. Adrian, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 1202 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khalighi, B.

B. Khalighi, Exp. Fluids 7, 142 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Krothapalli, A.

L. Lourenco, A. Krothapalli, Exp. Fluids 5, 29 (1987).

Landreth, C. C.

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, Exp. Fluids 6, 119 (1988).

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, Appl. Opt. 27, 4216 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawson, N. J.

Lecordier, B.

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

I. Grant, A. Liu, Exp. Fluids 10, 71 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, F.

M. Schmidt, F. Löffler, Exp. Fluids 14, 296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lourenco, L.

L. Lourenco, A. Krothapalli, Exp. Fluids 5, 29 (1987).

Meynart, R.

T. D. Dudderar, R. Meynart, P. G. Simpkins, Opt. Lasers Eng. 9, 163 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mouqallid, M.

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nino, E.

M. J. Stucky, E. Nino, B. Gajdeczko, P. G. Felton, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 8, 305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, C. J. D.

Post, M. E.

M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, R. D. Hancock, Exp. Fluids 16, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, J. Laser Appl. 3, 36 (1991).

Reeves, M.

Rimai, L.

A. A. Adamczyk, L. Rimai, Exp. Fluids 6, 373 (1988).

Rouland, E.

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sarka, B.

L. P. Goss, M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, J. Laser Appl. 3, 36 (1991).

Schmidt, M.

M. Schmidt, F. Löffler, Exp. Fluids 14, 296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simpkins, P. G.

T. D. Dudderar, R. Meynart, P. G. Simpkins, Opt. Lasers Eng. 9, 163 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, Nature (London) 270, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Stucky, M. J.

M. J. Stucky, E. Nino, B. Gajdeczko, P. G. Felton, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 8, 305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trinite, M.

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trump, D. D.

M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, R. D. Hancock, Exp. Fluids 16, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, J. Laser Appl. 3, 36 (1991).

Vottier, S.

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willert, C. E.

C. E. Willert, M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yao, C. S.

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, Exp. Fluids 6, 119 (1988).

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.

R. J. Adrian, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 23, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Exp. Fluids

B. Lecordier, M. Mouqallid, S. Vottier, E. Rouland, D. Allano, M. Trinite, Exp. Fluids 17, 205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Grant, A. Liu, Exp. Fluids 10, 71 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Landreth, R. J. Adrian, C. S. Yao, Exp. Fluids 6, 119 (1988).

L. Lourenco, A. Krothapalli, Exp. Fluids 5, 29 (1987).

C. E. Willert, M. Gharib, Exp. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Schmidt, F. Löffler, Exp. Fluids 14, 296 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, L. P. Goss, R. D. Hancock, Exp. Fluids 16, 263 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Adamczyk, L. Rimai, Exp. Fluids 6, 373 (1988).

B. Khalighi, Exp. Fluids 7, 142 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.

M. J. Stucky, E. Nino, B. Gajdeczko, P. G. Felton, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 8, 305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl.

L. P. Goss, M. E. Post, D. D. Trump, B. Sarka, J. Laser Appl. 3, 36 (1991).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

R. D. Keane, R. J. Adrian, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 1202 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. D. Dudderar, P. G. Simpkins, Nature (London) 270, 45 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng.

T. D. Dudderar, R. Meynart, P. G. Simpkins, Opt. Lasers Eng. 9, 163 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Two-pulse interrogation region, (b) autocorrelation function of the region in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Three-pulse interrogation region, (b) triple-correlation function of the region in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for three-pulse DPIV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Example three-pulse DPIV image of a flow from a counterflow burner, (b) velocity vector map of the image in (a).

Equations (2)

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A ( i , j ) = x y [ S ( x , y ) S ( x + i , y + j ) ] ,
T ( i , j ) = x y [ S ( x , y ) S ( x + i , y + j ) ] × S ( x + n i , y + n j ) ,             n = Δ t ( 1 3 ) Δ t ( 1 2 ) ,

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