Abstract

The linewidth of a room-temperature free-running 940-nm cw single-frequency 1-mm-long quantum-well InGaAs/AlGaAs diode laser in a 10-cm-long external cavity has been measured as a function of the output power by the heterodyne technique. The power-dependent component of the observed Lorentzian linewidth displays a linewidth–power product of 28 ± 4 kHz mW, which is 2 orders of magnitude larger than that predicted from the spontaneous emission model. The shot-noise model of Welford and Mooradian [Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 560 (1982)] for the power-independent linewidth has been extended to account for the observed power-dependent linewidth.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ohtsu, H. Fukada, T. Tako, H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1157 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Welford, A. Mooradian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 560 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Harrison, “Spectral characteristics of semiconductor diode lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1987).
  7. N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Vahala, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 140 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, H. E. Lassen, X. Pan, Electron. Lett. 28, 444 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Syvridis, G. Guekos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 151 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. A. Wang, H. K. Choi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 681 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Hsu, “Wavelength dependence of the spectral linewidth of a grating-tuned cw single-frequency external-cavity strained quantum well InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH diode laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1994).

1993 (1)

D. Syvridis, G. Guekos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 151 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, H. E. Lassen, X. Pan, Electron. Lett. 28, 444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. A. Wang, H. K. Choi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 681 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

K. Vahala, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 140 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, H. Fukada, T. Tako, H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1157 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Welford, A. Mooradian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. K.

C. A. Wang, H. K. Choi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 681 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, M. W.

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fukada, H.

M. Ohtsu, H. Fukada, T. Tako, H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1157 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Guekos, G.

D. Syvridis, G. Guekos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 151 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J.

J. Harrison, “Spectral characteristics of semiconductor diode lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1987).

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, L.

L. Hsu, “Wavelength dependence of the spectral linewidth of a grating-tuned cw single-frequency external-cavity strained quantum well InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH diode laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1994).

Lassen, H. E.

H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, H. E. Lassen, X. Pan, Electron. Lett. 28, 444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

D. Welford, A. Mooradian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

M. Ohtsu, H. Fukada, T. Tako, H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1157 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, H.

H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, H. E. Lassen, X. Pan, Electron. Lett. 28, 444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, H. E. Lassen, X. Pan, Electron. Lett. 28, 444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

D. Syvridis, G. Guekos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 151 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tako, T.

M. Ohtsu, H. Fukada, T. Tako, H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1157 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Tromborg, B.

H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, H. E. Lassen, X. Pan, Electron. Lett. 28, 444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

M. Ohtsu, H. Fukada, T. Tako, H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1157 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

K. Vahala, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 140 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Van Der Ziel, J. P.

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. A.

C. A. Wang, H. K. Choi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 681 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Welford, D.

D. Welford, A. Mooradian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

K. Vahala, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 140 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Welford, A. Mooradian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 560 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Vahala, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 140 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, H. E. Lassen, X. Pan, Electron. Lett. 28, 444 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

C. H. Henry, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Fleming, A. Mooradian, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 44 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Wang, H. K. Choi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 681 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Syvridis, G. Guekos, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 151 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. A. Olsson, J. P. Van Der Ziel, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Ohtsu, H. Fukada, T. Tako, H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1157 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Harrison, “Spectral characteristics of semiconductor diode lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1987).

L. Hsu, “Wavelength dependence of the spectral linewidth of a grating-tuned cw single-frequency external-cavity strained quantum well InGaAs/AlGaAs GRINSCH diode laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1994).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Heterodyne beat signal, with a linewidth of 20 ± 6 kHz, between two free-running external-cavity diode lasers operating at 940 nm and 5 mW from each laser. RES BW, Resolution bandwidth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured linewidth of the heterodyne beat signal as a function of the inverse output power from the lasers operating at 940 nm.

Equations (7)

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Δ ν S - T = h c 8 π λ P 0 ( c n a L a + n p L p ) 2 × [ γ a L a + 1 2 ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 ) ] ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 ) n sp ,
f = Δ η stat / Δ η sp ,
Δ η stat = η stat = V N th ,
Δ η sp = ( R sp Γ ) τ sp = ( τ sp Γ ) ( c n a L a + n p L p ) × [ γ a L a + 1 2 ln ( 1 R 1 R 2 ) ] ,
Δ ν = Δ ν P + Δ ν PI ,
Δ ν P = Δ ν S - T + Δ ν S - T α 2 + ( Δ ν S - T α 2 ) f .
Δ ν PI = Γ c λ ( L a n a L a + n p L p ) | d n a d η stat | Δ η stat .

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