Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first imaging system based on optoelectronic terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Terahertz time-domain waveforms are downconverted from the terahertz to the kilohertz frequency range, and the waveform for each pixel is frequency analyzed in real time with a digital signal processor to extract compositional information at that point. We demonstrate applications to package inspection and chemical content mapping in biological objects.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Biomedical applications of a real-time terahertz color scanner

Markus Schirmer, Makoto Fujio, Masaaki Minami, Jiro Miura, Tsutomu Araki, and Takeshi Yasui
Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2) 354-366 (2010)

Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives

Christian Jansen, Steffen Wietzke, Ole Peters, Maik Scheller, Nico Vieweg, Mohammed Salhi, Norman Krumbholz, Christian Jördens, Thomas Hochrein, and Martin Koch
Appl. Opt. 49(19) E48-E57 (2010)

Terahertz imaging system based on a backward-wave oscillator

Adrian Dobroiu, Masatsugu Yamashita, Yuichi N. Ohshima, Yasuyuki Morita, Chiko Otani, and Kodo Kawase
Appl. Opt. 43(30) 5637-5646 (2004)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Pedersen and S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Harde and D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1642 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. R. Rabbiner and B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).
  9. D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 19, 2143 (1994)S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. de Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, Opt. Lett. 20, 1406 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

J. E. Pedersen and S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Harde and D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1642 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

Auston, D. H.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bhushan, M.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

Brovelli, L. R.

Fattinger, C.

Goossen, K. W.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

Harde, H.

Juang, B. H.

L. R. Rabbiner and B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

Kamp, M.

Keiding, S.

Keller, U.

Kopf, D.

Littlewood, P. B.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mankiewich, P. M.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nuss, M. C.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

O’Malley, M. L.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, J. E.

J. E. Pedersen and S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rabbiner, L. R.

L. R. Rabbiner and B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

Smith, P. R.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
[Crossref]

Weingarten, K. J.

Westerwick, E. H.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. E. Pedersen and S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, and M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, and P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. R. Rabbiner and B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the THz imaging system. In our experiments the object is raster scanned by a two-axis motorized stage.

Plate I
Plate I

THz image of a packaged semiconductor integrated circuit (plastic packaging).

Plate II
Plate II

Left: THz image of a fresh leaf. Attenuation of THz radiation through the leaf is largely due to water within the leaf. Right: THz image of the same leaf after 48 h. Water has clearly evaporated from the leaf, except from the stems of the leaf. At the far right is the color scale indicating the relative water concentration within the leaf; darker green corresponds to higher water concentration.

Metrics