Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first imaging system based on optoelectronic terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Terahertz time-domain waveforms are downconverted from the terahertz to the kilohertz frequency range, and the waveform for each pixel is frequency analyzed in real time with a digital signal processor to extract compositional information at that point. We demonstrate applications to package inspection and chemical content mapping in biological objects.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Pedersen, S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Harde, D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1642 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. R. Rabbiner, B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).
  9. D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 19, 2143 (1994)S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. de Souza, W. Y. Jan, J. E. Cunningham, Opt. Lett. 20, 1406 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1992

J. E. Pedersen, S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Harde, D. Grischkowsky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1642 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, M.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brovelli, L. R.

Fattinger, C.

Goossen, K. W.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Harde, H.

Juang, B. H.

L. R. Rabbiner, B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

Kamp, M.

Keiding, S.

Keller, U.

Kopf, D.

Littlewood, P. B.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mankiewich, P. M.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

O’Malley, M. L.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. E.

J. E. Pedersen, S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rabbiner, L. R.

L. R. Rabbiner, B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

Smith, P. R.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

Westerwick, E. H.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, S. Keiding, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Theory Technol.

M. van Exter, D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Microwave Theory Technol. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, J. P. Gordon, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, M. Bhushan, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 2238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. C. Nuss, P. M. Mankiewich, M. L. O’Malley, E. H. Westerwick, P. B. Littlewood, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. R. Rabbiner, B. H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the THz imaging system. In our experiments the object is raster scanned by a two-axis motorized stage.

Plate I
Plate I

THz image of a packaged semiconductor integrated circuit (plastic packaging).

Plate II
Plate II

Left: THz image of a fresh leaf. Attenuation of THz radiation through the leaf is largely due to water within the leaf. Right: THz image of the same leaf after 48 h. Water has clearly evaporated from the leaf, except from the stems of the leaf. At the far right is the color scale indicating the relative water concentration within the leaf; darker green corresponds to higher water concentration.

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