Abstract

We show how the phase diagram of the HxLi1−xTaO3 waveguiding layer on top of a crystal of a given orientation allows one to understand, and thus to control, the proton-exchange process in lithium tantalate. Different ways of producing high-quality waveguides are identified.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Matthews, A. R. Mickelson, S. W. Novak, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2562 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).
  3. P. Baldi, S. Chen, P. Sebbah, Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, presented at Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée, Grenoble, France, October 17–19, 1990.
  4. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1156 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Nouh, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Electron. Lett. 28, 2337 (1992).
  7. W. B. Spillman, N. A. Sanford, R. A. Soref, Opt. Lett. 8, 497 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. Åhlfeldt, J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 717 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Yuhara, K. Tada, Y. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3966 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Chen, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Leycuras, G. Tartarini, P. Bassi, Opt. Lett. 18, 1314 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Ferroelectrics 160, 185 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  13. V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Proc. Soc. Photo- Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2150, 333 (1994).
  14. R. Th. Kersten, Opt. Acta 22, 503 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, Appl. Opt. 15, 151 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. Nouh, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Opt. Lett. 20, 1468 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. P. Baldi, S. Nouh, K. El Hadi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, Opt. Lett. 20, 1471 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Ferroelectrics 160, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Proc. Soc. Photo- Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2150, 333 (1994).

H. Åhlfeldt, J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 717 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

T. Yuhara, K. Tada, Y. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3966 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Electron. Lett. 28, 2337 (1992).

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Mickelson, S. W. Novak, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2562 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1156 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

1984 (1)

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

R. Th. Kersten, Opt. Acta 22, 503 (1975).
[Crossref]

Åhlfeldt, H.

H. Åhlfeldt, J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 717 (1994).
[Crossref]

Al-Shukri, S. M.

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

Armenise, M. N.

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

Arvidsson, G.

H. Åhlfeldt, J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 717 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baldi, P.

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Opt. Lett. 20, 1468 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Baldi, S. Nouh, K. El Hadi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. Papuchon, Opt. Lett. 20, 1471 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Leycuras, G. Tartarini, P. Bassi, Opt. Lett. 18, 1314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Electron. Lett. 28, 2337 (1992).

P. Baldi, S. Chen, P. Sebbah, Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, presented at Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée, Grenoble, France, October 17–19, 1990.

Bassi, P.

Carnera, A.

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

Chen, S.

S. Chen, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, A. Leycuras, G. Tartarini, P. Bassi, Opt. Lett. 18, 1314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Baldi, S. Chen, P. Sebbah, Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, presented at Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée, Grenoble, France, October 17–19, 1990.

De La Rue, R. M.

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

De Micheli, M.

De Micheli, M. P.

P. Baldi, S. Chen, P. Sebbah, Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, presented at Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée, Grenoble, France, October 17–19, 1990.

Duffy, J. F.

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

El Hadi, K.

Fedorov, V. A.

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Ferroelectrics 160, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Proc. Soc. Photo- Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2150, 333 (1994).

He, Q.

P. Baldi, S. Chen, P. Sebbah, Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, presented at Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée, Grenoble, France, October 17–19, 1990.

Heidrich, P. F.

Jackel, J. L.

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kersten, R. Th.

R. Th. Kersten, Opt. Acta 22, 503 (1975).
[Crossref]

Korkishko, Yu. N.

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Proc. Soc. Photo- Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2150, 333 (1994).

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Ferroelectrics 160, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lallier, E.

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Opt. Lett. 20, 1468 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Electron. Lett. 28, 2337 (1992).

Laurell, F.

H. Åhlfeldt, J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 717 (1994).
[Crossref]

Leycuras, A.

Li, Y.

T. Yuhara, K. Tada, Y. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3966 (1992).
[Crossref]

Matthews, P. J.

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Mickelson, S. W. Novak, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2562 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mazzi, G.

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

Mickelson, A. R.

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Mickelson, S. W. Novak, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2562 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732 (1991).
[Crossref]

Monnom, G.

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Opt. Lett. 20, 1468 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Electron. Lett. 28, 2337 (1992).

Nouh, S.

Novak, S. W.

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Mickelson, S. W. Novak, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2562 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ostowsky, D. B.

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Electron. Lett. 28, 2337 (1992).

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Papuchon, M.

Rice, C. E.

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sanford, N. A.

Sebbah, P.

P. Baldi, S. Chen, P. Sebbah, Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, presented at Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée, Grenoble, France, October 17–19, 1990.

Soref, R. A.

Spillman, W. B.

Tada, K.

T. Yuhara, K. Tada, Y. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3966 (1992).
[Crossref]

Taniuchi, T.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1156 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tartarini, G.

Webjorn, J.

H. Åhlfeldt, J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 717 (1994).
[Crossref]

White, J. M.

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1156 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yuhara, T.

T. Yuhara, K. Tada, Y. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3966 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Taniuchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2732 (1991).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Nouh, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostowsky, E. Lallier, M. Papuchon, Electron. Lett. 28, 2337 (1992).

Ferroelectrics (1)

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Ferroelectrics 160, 185 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. J. Matthews, A. R. Mickelson, S. W. Novak, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2562 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Åhlfeldt, J. Webjorn, F. Laurell, G. Arvidsson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 717 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. Yuhara, K. Tada, Y. Li, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3966 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

R. Th. Kersten, Opt. Acta 22, 503 (1975).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. Soc. Photo- Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

V. A. Fedorov, Yu. N. Korkishko, Proc. Soc. Photo- Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2150, 333 (1994).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

S. M. Al-Shukri, J. F. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, G. Mazzi, A. Carnera, M. N. Armenise, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 651, 20 (1986).

Other (1)

P. Baldi, S. Chen, P. Sebbah, Q. He, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, presented at Journées Nationales d’Optique Guidée, Grenoble, France, October 17–19, 1990.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase diagram of HxLi1−xNbO3 on a Z substrate, giving the dependence of the index variation measured at λ = 632.8 nm on the deformations. Samples 1, 3, and 4 are prepared by exchange in high-temperature benzoic acid melts diluted with lithium benzoate. Samples 2a and 5a–7a are obtained by annealing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index variation obtained in Z substrates at λ = 0.6328 μm versus the LB quantity in the melt. Two different waveguides profiles were obtained for two thresholds for ρ: the numbers identify the waveguides that were analyzed by double-crystal x-ray diffraction and given in the phase diagram (Fig. 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Annealing effects. Curve (a): Initial exchange conditions: 0% LB, 330 °C, and 4 h, leading to a waveguide in the δ phase. With successive annealings the protons move deeper into the substrate, and δne increases as the waveguide experiences phase transition to the γ or β phase. In these phases the index profile remains essentially steplike. Curve (b): Initial exchange conditions: 0.1% LB, 330 °C, and 4 h, leading to a waveguide in the γ or β phase. With successive annealings the protons move deeper into the substrate, and δne decreases as the waveguide experiences a phase transition to the α phase. In this phase the index profile is graded.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dependence of the Extraordinary Index Changes δne on the Relative Cell Deformation ɛ 33

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fabrication Conditions and Results Corresponding to Our Samples Studied and Reported in Figs. 1 and 2

Equations (1)

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ɛ i j = a [ H + ] .

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