Abstract

The lasing spectra from a Rhodamine B–doped microdroplet (85% isopropanol and 15% water) with a thermochromic additive (CoCl2.6H2O) have been observed to shift progressively toward blue as the droplet temperature is gradually increased. The absorption of the thermochromic additive increases as the temperature of the solution is increased. The mechanism of temperature-dependent absorption is reviewed. We propose that the temperature-dependent shifting of the lasing spectra might be used for the determination of the droplet temperature.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. R. Hanlon, L. A. Melton, J. Heat Transfer 114, 450 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Massoli, F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio, M. Lazzaro, Appl. Opt. 32, 3295 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Bacci, M. Brenci, G. Conforti, R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, A. M. Scheggi, Appl. Opt. 25, 1079 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Seaver, J. R. Peele, Appl. Opt. 29, 4956 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. R. Sauers, S. N. Husain, A. P. Piechowski, G. R. Bird, Dyes Pigments 8, 35 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.
  7. M. M. Mazumder, G. Chen, R. K. Chang, J. B. Gillespie, Opt. Lett. 20, 878 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W. C. Nieuwpoort, G. A. Wesselink, E. H. A. M. Van der Wee, Rec. Trav. Chim. 85, 397 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. I. Katzin, E. Gebert, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5464 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, P. L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), p. 498.
  11. S. Lechat, M. A. Khan, G. Bouet, Inorg. Chim. Acta 211, 33 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. P. Schäfer, in Dye Lasers, 2nd revised ed., F. P. Schäfer, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 32–37.

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

T. R. Hanlon, L. A. Melton, J. Heat Transfer 114, 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

R. R. Sauers, S. N. Husain, A. P. Piechowski, G. R. Bird, Dyes Pigments 8, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1966 (1)

W. C. Nieuwpoort, G. A. Wesselink, E. H. A. M. Van der Wee, Rec. Trav. Chim. 85, 397 (1966).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

L. I. Katzin, E. Gebert, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5464 (1950).
[Crossref]

Bacci, M.

Benner, R. E.

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.

Beretta, F.

Bird, G. R.

R. R. Sauers, S. N. Husain, A. P. Piechowski, G. R. Bird, Dyes Pigments 8, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bouet, G.

S. Lechat, M. A. Khan, G. Bouet, Inorg. Chim. Acta 211, 33 (1993).
[Crossref]

Brenci, M.

Chang, R. K.

Chen, G.

Conforti, G.

Cotton, F. A.

F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, P. L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), p. 498.

D’Alessio, A.

Falciai, R.

Gaus, P. L.

F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, P. L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), p. 498.

Gebert, E.

L. I. Katzin, E. Gebert, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5464 (1950).
[Crossref]

Gillespie, J. B.

Hanlon, T. R.

T. R. Hanlon, L. A. Melton, J. Heat Transfer 114, 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hill, S. C.

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.

Husain, S. N.

R. R. Sauers, S. N. Husain, A. P. Piechowski, G. R. Bird, Dyes Pigments 8, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

Katzin, L. I.

L. I. Katzin, E. Gebert, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5464 (1950).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

S. Lechat, M. A. Khan, G. Bouet, Inorg. Chim. Acta 211, 33 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lazzaro, M.

Lechat, S.

S. Lechat, M. A. Khan, G. Bouet, Inorg. Chim. Acta 211, 33 (1993).
[Crossref]

Massoli, P.

Mazumder, M. M.

Melton, L. A.

T. R. Hanlon, L. A. Melton, J. Heat Transfer 114, 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mignani, A. G.

Nieuwpoort, W. C.

W. C. Nieuwpoort, G. A. Wesselink, E. H. A. M. Van der Wee, Rec. Trav. Chim. 85, 397 (1966).
[Crossref]

Peele, J. R.

Piechowski, A. P.

R. R. Sauers, S. N. Husain, A. P. Piechowski, G. R. Bird, Dyes Pigments 8, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sauers, R. R.

R. R. Sauers, S. N. Husain, A. P. Piechowski, G. R. Bird, Dyes Pigments 8, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, F. P.

F. P. Schäfer, in Dye Lasers, 2nd revised ed., F. P. Schäfer, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 32–37.

Scheggi, A. M.

Seaver, M.

Van der Wee, E. H. A. M.

W. C. Nieuwpoort, G. A. Wesselink, E. H. A. M. Van der Wee, Rec. Trav. Chim. 85, 397 (1966).
[Crossref]

Wesselink, G. A.

W. C. Nieuwpoort, G. A. Wesselink, E. H. A. M. Van der Wee, Rec. Trav. Chim. 85, 397 (1966).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, G.

F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, P. L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), p. 498.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Dyes Pigments (1)

R. R. Sauers, S. N. Husain, A. P. Piechowski, G. R. Bird, Dyes Pigments 8, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

Inorg. Chim. Acta (1)

S. Lechat, M. A. Khan, G. Bouet, Inorg. Chim. Acta 211, 33 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

L. I. Katzin, E. Gebert, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5464 (1950).
[Crossref]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

T. R. Hanlon, L. A. Melton, J. Heat Transfer 114, 450 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rec. Trav. Chim. (1)

W. C. Nieuwpoort, G. A. Wesselink, E. H. A. M. Van der Wee, Rec. Trav. Chim. 85, 397 (1966).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, P. L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1987), p. 498.

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.

F. P. Schäfer, in Dye Lasers, 2nd revised ed., F. P. Schäfer, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 32–37.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the thermochromic absorption spectra of 0.1 M CoCl2.6H2O in a solution of 85% isopropanol and 15% water.3 The insets show the octahedral and tetrahedral configurations that are responsible for the absorption bands of the Co2+ complexes. (b) The absorption [σa(λ)] and the stimulated emission [σe(λ)] spectra of Rhodamine B in ethanol.5

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lasing spectra from microdroplets (with radius ≃35 μm) with 5 × 10−4 M Rhodamine B in 0.1 M CoCl2.6H2O solution of 85% isopropanol and 15% water at Torifice = 21, 32, 42, 52, 63, 75, 92 °C. The curves are shifted vertically [by 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.0 (a.u.), respectively] for clarity of visualization. The pump laser power is fixed at ≃10 MW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated minimum fraction of fluorescent dye molecules γ to be excited for lasing plotted as a function of wavelength for uniform droplet temperatures of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 °C [see Eq. (3)] with 5 × 10−4 M Rhodamine B. The αabs(λ, T) values for the Co2+ complex are from Ref. 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Long-wavelength portion of each measured lasing spectrum in Fig. 2 expanded to determine the transition wavelength between lasing and fluorescence in the microdroplets.

Equations (3)

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Co ( H 2 O ) 6 2 + + 4 Cl - + heat CoCl 4 2 - + 6 H 2 O .
n 1 σ e ( λ ) α leakage ( λ ) + α abs ( λ , T ) + n 0 σ a ( λ ) ,
γ ( λ ) = n 1 ( λ ) n T = 2 π m ( λ ) n T λ Q 0 + α abs ( λ , T ) n T + σ a ( λ ) σ a ( λ ) + σ e ( λ ) .

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