Abstract

We present a closed-loop adaptive-optics system that uses a liquid-crystal television (LCTV) as a phase retarder. The system consists of a LCTV inserted into one leg of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer so that one measures the wave-front function by analyzing the interferogram using a video CCD camera and a computer and corrects the wave-front distortion by placing the conjugate function on the LCTV. Experimental results are presented.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. A. Thompson, Phys. Today 47(12), 24 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. W. Hardy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 2 (1991).
  3. B. A. Horwitz, Opt. Eng. 29, 1223 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Roddier, Opt. Eng. 29, 1239 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).
  6. D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).
  7. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 721.
  8. D. W. Berreman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M.W. Thie, B. K. Jones, Opt. Eng. 31, 963 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, Opt. Eng. 33, 1061 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1994 (2)

L. A. Thompson, Phys. Today 47(12), 24 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, Opt. Eng. 33, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M.W. Thie, B. K. Jones, Opt. Eng. 31, 963 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

J. W. Hardy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 2 (1991).

1990 (3)

B. A. Horwitz, Opt. Eng. 29, 1223 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. Roddier, Opt. Eng. 29, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).

1974 (1)

D. W. Berreman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12 (1974).
[Crossref]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12 (1974).
[Crossref]

Biliotti, V.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

Bonaccini, D.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).

Brusa, G.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).

Esposito, S.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).

Gregory, D. A.

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M.W. Thie, B. K. Jones, Opt. Eng. 31, 963 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 2 (1991).

Horwitz, B. A.

B. A. Horwitz, Opt. Eng. 29, 1223 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jones, B. K.

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M.W. Thie, B. K. Jones, Opt. Eng. 31, 963 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kirsch, J. C.

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M.W. Thie, B. K. Jones, Opt. Eng. 31, 963 (1992).
[Crossref]

Knopp, J.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, Opt. Eng. 33, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref]

Monroe, S. E.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, Opt. Eng. 33, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Opt. Eng. 29, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 721.

Salinari, P.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).

Soutar, C.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, Opt. Eng. 33, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stefanini, P.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 721.

Thie, M.W.

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M.W. Thie, B. K. Jones, Opt. Eng. 31, 963 (1992).
[Crossref]

Thompson, L. A.

L. A. Thompson, Phys. Today 47(12), 24 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. W. Berreman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 12 (1974).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (4)

J. C. Kirsch, D. A. Gregory, M.W. Thie, B. K. Jones, Opt. Eng. 31, 963 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe, J. Knopp, Opt. Eng. 33, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. A. Horwitz, Opt. Eng. 29, 1223 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. Roddier, Opt. Eng. 29, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Today (1)

L. A. Thompson, Phys. Today 47(12), 24 (1994).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

J. W. Hardy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 2 (1991).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1334, 89 (1990).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotti, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 721.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Closed-loop adaptive-optics system diagram. B1– B3, beam splitters; P, phase object; L1, L2, lenses; S, spatial filter; CCD1, CCD2, CCD cameras for detecting the interference pattern and the point-spread function, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wave-front correction of the optical system: (a) the reference plane wave, (b) interference fringes of the optical system, (c) interference pattern after correction by driving the LCTV, (d) the driven pattern on the LCTV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wave-front correction of a phase object: (a) interference fringes of the phase object, (b) interference pattern after correction by driving the LCTV, (c) the driven pattern on the LCTV, (d) three-dimensional plot of the wave front of the phase object with a 30 × 30 grid used to represent the 1 cm × 1 cm aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Point-spread functions of the measured wave front: (a) before correction, (b) after correction.

Equations (3)

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I ( x , y ) = u ( x , y ) + B 2 = { A exp [ j Φ ( x , y ) ] + B } × { A exp [ - j Φ ( x , y ) ] + B } = C 1 + C 2 cos [ Φ ( x , y ) ] ,
I ( x , y ) - I l I h - I l = C 2 { 1 + cos [ Φ ( x , y ) ] } 2 C 2 = 1 + cos [ Φ ( x , y ) ] 2 .
Φ ( x , y ) = ± cos - 1 { 2 [ I ( x , y ) - I l I h - I l ] - 1 } .

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