Abstract

We have generated 1–20-GHz microwave pulses by illuminating an Fe-compensated InP wafer with 50-ps optical pulses at normal incidence. The process of the generation of microwave radiation was monitored and analyzed directly through a 40-GHz sampling oscilloscope with precision. The saturation properties, the waveform evolution, and the optical coupling efficiency of the gigahertz photoconducting antenna are discussed. The flexibility, compactness, and high-resolution features offered by this technique merit new applications for radar communication as well as for other microwave detecting devices.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, D. M. Bloom, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 225.
  3. B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. Auston, X.-C. Zhang, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 2.
  5. X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. How, J. B. Thaxter, C. Vittoria, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 68 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, S. Bachowski, J. A. Adamski, J. Electron. Mater. 20, 967 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, J. Crystal Growth 128, 451 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. W. Liu, X. M. Xu, Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4640 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1981), p. 649.

1994 (2)

H. How, J. B. Thaxter, C. Vittoria, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Liu, X. M. Xu, Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, J. Crystal Growth 128, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, S. Bachowski, J. A. Adamski, J. Electron. Mater. 20, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adamski, J. A.

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, S. Bachowski, J. A. Adamski, J. Electron. Mater. 20, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, X.-C. Zhang, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 2.

Bachowski, S.

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, S. Bachowski, J. A. Adamski, J. Electron. Mater. 20, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, D. F.

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, J. Crystal Growth 128, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, S. Bachowski, J. A. Adamski, J. Electron. Mater. 20, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. W. Liu, X. M. Xu, Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, D. M. Bloom, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 225.

Greene, B. I.

B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, D. M. Bloom, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 225.

Hilton, R. M.

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, J. Crystal Growth 128, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, S. Bachowski, J. A. Adamski, J. Electron. Mater. 20, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinders, M.

H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

How, H.

H. How, J. B. Thaxter, C. Vittoria, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D. W.

D. W. Liu, X. M. Xu, Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morse, J. D.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saeta, P. N.

B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1981), p. 649.

Thaxter, J. B.

H. How, J. B. Thaxter, C. Vittoria, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trott, K.

H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vittoria, C.

H. How, J. B. Thaxter, C. Vittoria, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. M.

D. W. Liu, X. M. Xu, Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zayek, F.

H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, X.-C. Zhang, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 2.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, D. R. Dykaar, S. Schmitt-Rink, S. L. Chuang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2302 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

H. How, F. Zayek, C. Vittoria, K. Trott, M. Hinders, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 4317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

H. How, J. B. Thaxter, C. Vittoria, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 68 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Crystal Growth (1)

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, J. Crystal Growth 128, 451 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

D. F. Bliss, R. M. Hilton, S. Bachowski, J. A. Adamski, J. Electron. Mater. 20, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. W. Liu, X. M. Xu, Y. F. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 49, 4640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. H. Auston, X.-C. Zhang, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 2.

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, in Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, D. M. Bloom, T. C. L. G. Sollner, eds., Vol. 4 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 225.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1981), p. 649.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. WG, waveguide; EM, electromagnetic; T’s, triggering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A 50-ps microwave pulse generated by a 50-ps laser pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microwave output signal received by a K-band ridge waveguide transducer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Saturation effect that is due to depletion of the electric field in an InP wafer under intensive illumination with an optical excitation fluence of (a) 25, (b) 83, (c) 125, and (d) 250 μJ/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microwave radiation intensity versus optical excitation fluence. The dashed curve is a best fit calculated with Eq. (2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microwave signals generated by (a), (c) single illumination and (b) dual illumination.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ s ( t ) = e μ ( 1 - R ) ω - t d t I op ( t ) exp [ ( t - t ) τ r ] ,
E = - E b σ s ( t ) η 0 σ s ( t ) η 0 + ( 1 + ) ,
σ s max = e ( 1 - R ) μ tr F op ω ,

Metrics