Abstract

Three-photon-absorption-induced frequency-upconversion fluorescence emission has been observed in a solution of 2,5-benzothiazole 3,4-didecyloxy thiophene (BBTDOT) in tetrahydrofuran, pumped with 10-ns Q-switched 1.06-μm laser pulses. The spectral peak of the observed fluorescence emission is located in the 450–480-nm range, and the intensity dependence of the visible emission on the IR excitation obeys the cubic law. At a higher solute concentration (0.18 M/L) and moderate IR excitation intensity levels (50–200 MW/cm2), obvious optical limiting behavior has been observed as a result of three-photon absorption. The measured nonlinear absorption coefficient and the corresponding molecular three-photon-absorption cross section are γ = 2.7 × 10−18 cm3/W2 and σ3=8.8×10-76cm6s2, respectively.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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1995 (2)

1994 (1)

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L.W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

Y. C. Chang, A. E. Chiou, M. Khoshnevissan, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1349 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Marconi, P. R. Salvi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 193, 481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

I. M. Popescu, N. Puscas, P. Sterian, M. Piscureanu, Sci. Bull. Polytech. Inst. Bucharest Chem. Mater. Sci. 53, 39 (1991).

1986 (1)

A. C. Walker, A. K. Kar, J. Wei, U. Keller, S. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

1984 (1)

G. Brost, P. Braeunlich, P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. B 30, 4675 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. A. Kramer, R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. B 23, 986 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. Penzkofer, W. Falkenstein, Opt. Commun. 16, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. Agostini, P. Bensoussan, J. C. Boulassier, Opt. Commun. 5, 293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. C. Selden, Nature (London) 229, 210 (1971).

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, P. Bensoussan, J. C. Boulassier, Opt. Commun. 5, 293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bensoussan, P.

P. Agostini, P. Bensoussan, J. C. Boulassier, Opt. Commun. 5, 293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, J. C.

Blanzat, B.

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bogess, T. F.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Boggess, T. F.

L.W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boulassier, J. C.

P. Agostini, P. Bensoussan, J. C. Boulassier, Opt. Commun. 5, 293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

M. A. Kramer, R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. B 23, 986 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Braeunlich, P.

G. Brost, P. Braeunlich, P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. B 30, 4675 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brost, G.

G. Brost, P. Braeunlich, P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. B 30, 4675 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

Y. C. Chang, A. E. Chiou, M. Khoshnevissan, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1349 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, A. E.

Y. C. Chang, A. E. Chiou, M. Khoshnevissan, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1349 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Denis, J. P.

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

Falkenstein, W.

A. Penzkofer, W. Falkenstein, Opt. Commun. 16, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Gvishi, R.

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reihardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

Hutchings, D. C.

Kar, A. K.

A. C. Walker, A. K. Kar, J. Wei, U. Keller, S. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A. C. Walker, A. K. Kar, J. Wei, U. Keller, S. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P.

G. Brost, P. Braeunlich, P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. B 30, 4675 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kermaoui, A.

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khoshnevissan, M.

Y. C. Chang, A. E. Chiou, M. Khoshnevissan, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1349 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, M. A.

M. A. Kramer, R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. B 23, 986 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, G.

G. Marconi, P. R. Salvi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 193, 481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozen, G.

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pelle, F.

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

A. Penzkofer, W. Falkenstein, Opt. Commun. 16, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Piscureanu, M.

I. M. Popescu, N. Puscas, P. Sterian, M. Piscureanu, Sci. Bull. Polytech. Inst. Bucharest Chem. Mater. Sci. 53, 39 (1991).

Popescu, I. M.

I. M. Popescu, N. Puscas, P. Sterian, M. Piscureanu, Sci. Bull. Polytech. Inst. Bucharest Chem. Mater. Sci. 53, 39 (1991).

Prasad, P. N.

Puscas, N.

I. M. Popescu, N. Puscas, P. Sterian, M. Piscureanu, Sci. Bull. Polytech. Inst. Bucharest Chem. Mater. Sci. 53, 39 (1991).

Reihardt, B. A.

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reihardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

Salvi, P. R.

G. Marconi, P. R. Salvi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 193, 481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Selden, A. C.

A. C. Selden, Nature (London) 229, 210 (1971).

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Smith, S. D.

A. C. Walker, A. K. Kar, J. Wei, U. Keller, S. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Sterian, P.

I. M. Popescu, N. Puscas, P. Sterian, M. Piscureanu, Sci. Bull. Polytech. Inst. Bucharest Chem. Mater. Sci. 53, 39 (1991).

Tutt, L.W.

L.W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. C. Hutchings, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Walker, A. C.

A. C. Walker, A. K. Kar, J. Wei, U. Keller, S. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

A. C. Walker, A. K. Kar, J. Wei, U. Keller, S. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Wu, X.

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. C. Walker, A. K. Kar, J. Wei, U. Keller, S. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 683 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Marconi, P. R. Salvi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 193, 481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. C. Chang, A. E. Chiou, M. Khoshnevissan, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1349 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

J. P. Denis, G. Ozen, X. Wu, A. Kermaoui, F. Pelle, B. Blanzat, J. Mater. Res. 9, 2138 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

A. C. Selden, Nature (London) 229, 210 (1971).

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. Agostini, P. Bensoussan, J. C. Boulassier, Opt. Commun. 5, 293 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. Penzkofer, W. Falkenstein, Opt. Commun. 16, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Gvishi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reihardt, Opt. Commun. 117, 133 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Bogess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. A. Kramer, R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. B 23, 986 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Brost, P. Braeunlich, P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. B 30, 4675 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L.W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Bull. Polytech. Inst. Bucharest Chem. Mater. Sci. (1)

I. M. Popescu, N. Puscas, P. Sterian, M. Piscureanu, Sci. Bull. Polytech. Inst. Bucharest Chem. Mater. Sci. 53, 39 (1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One-photon absorption spectrum of a 1-mm-thick BBTDOT solution in THF of 3.5 × 10−2 M/L concentration. The molecular chemical structure of the solute is given in the top-right corner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured fluorescence intensity as a function of the input 1.06-μm intensity for a solution sample of d0 = 1.7 × 10−2 M/L (filled circles) and a pure THF sample (open circles). The solid curve is the best-fitted curve based on the cubic law.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured relative spectral distributions of fluorescence emission excited by 353-nm radiation [curve (a)] and a 1.06-μm laser beam [curve (b)]. The reabsorption-corrected data are shown by solid squares and curve (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmitted intensity as a function of the incident intensity for a solution sample of d0 = 0.18 M/L (filled squares) and a pure THF sample (open circles). The solid curve is the theoretically fitted curve with a best-fit parameter of γ = 2.7 × 10−18 cm3/W2. The propagation distance of the excitation 1.06-μm laser beam within the sample was 10 cm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d I ( z ) / d z = - γ I 3 ( z ) ,
I ( z ) = I 0 / ( 1 + 2 γ z I 0 2 ) ,
γ = σ 3 N A d 0 × 10 - 3 ,
σ 3 = σ 3 ( h ν ) 2 ,

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