Abstract

We demonstrate the use of a near-field probe to map the angular dependence of high-Q whispering-gallery modes in fused-silica microspheres. The mapping is performed by placing a micrometer-sized tip formed on the end of a monomode fiber into the evanescent field at the microsphere surface, causing light to be coupled from the microsphere resonance into the fiber guided mode. The light output of the fiber is then measured while the tip is moved to different points on the microsphere surface. We have used this method to investigate the lifting of spherical degeneracy in the system.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.
  2. L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, S. P. Vyatchanin, Opt. Commun. 107, 41 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Treussart, J. Hare, L. Collot, V. Lefèvre, D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 19, 1651 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Chen, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 16, 1269 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. C. Swindal, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, K. Young, Opt. Lett. 18, 191 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Chen, M. M. Mazumder, Y. R. Chemla, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18, 1993 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Heinzelmann, D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Courjon, C. Bainier, F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre, Opt. Lett. 20, 813 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (5)

F. Treussart, J. Hare, L. Collot, V. Lefèvre, D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 19, 1651 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mabuchi, H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Heinzelmann, D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

J. C. Swindal, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, K. Young, Opt. Lett. 18, 191 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, M. M. Mazumder, Y. R. Chemla, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18, 1993 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, S. P. Vyatchanin, Opt. Commun. 107, 41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baida, F.

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

G. Chen, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 16, 1269 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, R. E.

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chemla, Y. R.

Chen, G.

Collot, L.

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, N.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, S. P. Vyatchanin, Opt. Commun. 107, 41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

Heinzelmann, H.

H. Heinzelmann, D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

G. Chen, M. M. Mazumder, Y. R. Chemla, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, Opt. Lett. 18, 1993 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, P. W. Barber, Opt. Lett. 16, 1269 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.

Ilchenko, V. S.

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, S. P. Vyatchanin, Opt. Commun. 107, 41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Knight, J. C.

Lai, H. M.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, D. H.

Lefèvre, V.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leventhal, D.

Mabuchi, H.

Mazumder, M. M.

Pohl, D. W.

H. Heinzelmann, D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

Sandoghdar, V.

Serpengüzel, A.

Swindal, J. C.

Treussart, F.

Vyatchanin, S. P.

V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, S. P. Vyatchanin, Opt. Commun. 107, 41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D. S.

Young, K.

J. C. Swindal, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, K. Young, Opt. Lett. 18, 191 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

H. Heinzelmann, D. W. Pohl, Appl. Phys. A 59, 89 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

V. S. Ilchenko, M. L. Gorodetsky, S. P. Vyatchanin, Opt. Commun. 107, 41 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, C. Bainier, F. Baida, Opt. Commun. 110, 7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated With Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment, with the inset showing detail of the sphere–probe region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular patterns observed from different resonant TE modes in a fused-silica microsphere of size 2a = 286 μm (thick curves) and the fitted patterns from relation (1) (thin curves). The actual intensities have been independently scaled and offset for the purposes of the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed TE resonance wavelengths plotted as a function of the number of lobes observed in the angular dependence for each mode. The lines join the points as an aid to the eye. Those lines that are not complete correspond to resonances that are not strongly excited and that could not all be unambiguously mapped. Lines plotted with the same symbols show modes with the same n value but with l differing by 1. The precision of the measurement of the wavelength of a particular mode is approximately 0.0005 nm.

Equations (1)

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I l , m ( θ , ϕ ) H l - m ( l 1 / 2 cos θ ) sin m ( θ ) exp ( i m ϕ ) 2 ,

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