Abstract

A Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Al2O3 oscillator, optimized for minimal coherence length, is demonstrated as a high-power source for high-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging. Dispersion compensation and heterodyne noise rejection are demonstrated to yield in situ images of biological tissues with 3.7-μm resolution and 93-dB dynamic range.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1994 (2)

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616 (1991); A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, Opt. Lett. 13, 186 (1988).
[PubMed]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, W. Sibbett, Opt. Lett. 16, 42 (1991); L. Spinelli, B. Couillaud, N. Goldblatt, D. K. Negus, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper CPDP7.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

Abbas, G. L.

Bouma, B.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill., 1993); M. T. Asaki, C. P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 18, 977 (1993).

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Chan, V. W. S.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, P.-H.

Chida, K.

Clivaz, X.

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R.-P. Salathé, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2083, 19 (1994).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993); J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993); J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616 (1991); A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, Opt. Lett. 13, 186 (1988).
[PubMed]

Huang, C. P.

Huang, D.

Izatt, J. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993); J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kean, P. N.

Lin, C. P.

Liu, H.-H.

Marquis-Weible, F.

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R.-P. Salathé, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2083, 19 (1994).

Murnane, M. M.

Noda, J.

Puliafito, C. A.

Salathé, R.-P.

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R.-P. Salathé, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2083, 19 (1994).

Schuman, J. S.

Sibbett, W.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Spence, D. E.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993); J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, D. Huang, M. R. Hee, J. G. Fujimoto, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Lett. 17, 151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Taft, G.

Takada, K.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

Wang, J.

Yee, T. K.

Yokohama, I.

Zhou, J. Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 616 (1991); A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, Opt. Lett. 13, 186 (1988).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, R.-P. Salathé, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2083, 19 (1994).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, M. R. Hee, B. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, J. F. Southern, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Conference on Lasers and Electro- Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Socity of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CThN3.

B. E. Bouma, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill., 1993); M. T. Asaki, C. P. Huang, D. Garvey, J. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, Opt. Lett. 18, 977 (1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-optic Michelson interferometer using a KLM Ti:Al2O3 laser as a short-coherence-length, high-power source. The heterodyne signal that results from the constant velocity translation of the reference mirror (R) is registered at the detectors (D1, D2) only when the path lengths of the sample arm (S) and the reference arm are matched to within the source coherence length. Dispersion is balanced between the two arms by a variable thickness window (P) consisting of two index-matched fused-silica prisms. A-D, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of the output of the Ti:Al2O3 oscillator (solid curve) and of the field transmitted to the detector ports of the interferometer (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tomographic images of onion produced by a, the high-resolution Ti:Al2O3 OCT system and b, a super luminescent diode OCT system. The numerical apertures of the objectives for these two systems were not equivalent but were chosen so that transverse resolution was matched to the axial resolution. The uppermost layer of cells has an average diameter of 40 μm and a cell wall thickness of ~5 μm.

Equations (2)

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Δ L = 2 ln ( 2 ) π λ 2 Δ λ ,
SNR = 10 ln ( η ω P SAM NEB ) ,

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