Abstract

Advanced spatial light modulators both detect incident light and modulate reflected light. Each pixel may contain multiple photodetectors, a modulator, control circuitry, and signal-processing circuitry. Because each detector and modulator occupies only a fraction of the area of a pixel the optical efficiency of these devices suffers. We have experimented with improving optical input/output performance by integrating a microlens array with a ferroelectric liquid-crystal VLSI spatial light modulator. We have studied the microlens VLSI spacing accuracy that must be achieved to yield minimum distortion of reflected wave fronts and the best optical efficiency for Fourier-transform applications.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Kathman, M. L. Temmen, M. L. Scott, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 58 (1991).
  2. L. K. Cotter, T. J. Drabik, R. J. Dillon, M. A. Handschy, Opt. Lett. 15, 291 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. A. Handschy, D. B. Banas, S. D. Gaalema, in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 62–65.
  4. M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).
  5. K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Micro-Optics Group, Adaptive Optics Associates, Inc., 54 Cambridge Park Drive, Cambridge, Mass. 02140-1348.
  7. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw- Hill, New York, 1968).

1994 (1)

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

1993 (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. D. Kathman, M. L. Temmen, M. L. Scott, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 58 (1991).

1990 (1)

Banas, D. B.

M. A. Handschy, D. B. Banas, S. D. Gaalema, in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 62–65.

Chase, H.

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

Cotter, L. K.

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

L. K. Cotter, T. J. Drabik, R. J. Dillon, M. A. Handschy, Opt. Lett. 15, 291 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. D.

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

Dillon, R. J.

Drabik, T. J.

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

L. K. Cotter, T. J. Drabik, R. J. Dillon, M. A. Handschy, Opt. Lett. 15, 291 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaalema, S. D.

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

M. A. Handschy, D. B. Banas, S. D. Gaalema, in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 62–65.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw- Hill, New York, 1968).

Handschy, M. A.

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

L. K. Cotter, T. J. Drabik, R. J. Dillon, M. A. Handschy, Opt. Lett. 15, 291 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Handschy, D. B. Banas, S. D. Gaalema, in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 62–65.

Johnson, K. M.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kathman, A. D.

A. D. Kathman, M. L. Temmen, M. L. Scott, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 58 (1991).

McKnight, D. J.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pattee, A. M.

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

Scott, M. L.

A. D. Kathman, M. L. Temmen, M. L. Scott, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 58 (1991).

Temmen, M. L.

A. D. Kathman, M. L. Temmen, M. L. Scott, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 58 (1991).

Underwood, I.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

A. D. Kathman, M. L. Temmen, M. L. Scott, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 58 (1991).

M. A. Handschy, H. Chase, L. K. Cotter, J. D. Cunningham, A. M. Pattee, T. J. Drabik, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2237, 432 (1994).

Other (3)

M. A. Handschy, D. B. Banas, S. D. Gaalema, in Spatial Light Modulators and Applications, Vol. 6 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 62–65.

Micro-Optics Group, Adaptive Optics Associates, Inc., 54 Cambridge Park Drive, Cambridge, Mass. 02140-1348.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw- Hill, New York, 1968).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the structure of an FLC-VLSI SLM with a microlens array (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: 6 × 6 portion of a SLM with no microlenses in which the FLC modulators have been turned on (the bright circular regions) in a checkerboard pattern of 2 × 2 groups. Right: otherwise identical SLM that has a microlens array attached.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the calculated central FT spot intensity (solid curve) with the measured intensities (squares).

Equations (5)

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U i ( x i , y i ) = d o d i exp [ i π λ d i ( x i 2 + y i 2 ) ( 1 + d o d i ) ] × U o ( - x i d o d i , - y i d o d i ) .
U ( f x , f y ) = 1 i λ f - - u ( x o , y o ) × exp [ - i 2 π ( f x x o + f y y o ) ] d x o d y o , u ( x o , y o ) = A w 2 rect ( x o W , y o W ) ( comb ( x w + 1 2 , y w + 1 2 ) * { rect ( x w , y w ) exp [ i ϕ ( x , y ) ] } ) .
U ( f x , f y ) = A W 2 i λ f sinc ( W f x , W f y ) * { exp [ i π d ( f x + f y ) ] × comb ( w f x , w f y ) H ( f x , f y ) } .
U 0 ( f x , f y ) = A W 2 i λ f w 2 sinc ( W f x , W f y ) H ( 0 , 0 ) .
H ( 0 , 0 ) = ( - 1 / 2 1 / 2 exp { i n G n A 2 π x ˜ 2 w 2 λ f [ ( T / f ) - 1 2 ( T / f ) - 1 ] } d x ˜ ) 2 .

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