Abstract

A strong axial tension increase induced by UV laser radiation is observed in the cores of single-mode optical fibers containing Bragg gratings, independently of the initial core stress. The induced index modulation of the gratings is linearly correlated to stress changes with a slope of (0.8 ± 0.2) × 10−4 mm2/kg. The phenomenon can be explained by a structural change of the glass in the fiber core into a more compact configuration.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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1994

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, B. Leuenberger, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 1005.

1993

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47, (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1993).

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. P. Bernardin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 15, 102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1987

1986

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

1978

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1086

Archambault, J. L.

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, D. Payne, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 997.

Atkins, G. R.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, P. K.

Bernardin, J. P.

J. P. Bernardin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

Cochet, F.

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, B. Leuenberger, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 1005.

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, D. Payne, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 997.

Erdogan, T.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fiori, C.

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, B. Leuenberger, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 1005.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P.Y.

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gilgen, H. H.

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

Glenn, W. H.

Hand, D. P.

Hermann, W.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hutjens, M.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1993).

Lambelet, P.

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

Lawandy, N. M.

J. P. Bernardin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, B.

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, B. Leuenberger, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 1005.

Limberger, H. G.

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, B. Leuenberger, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 1005.

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Payne, D.

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, D. Payne, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 997.

Poole, S. B.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Wong, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 408, paper PD16; Opt. Lett. 17, 1773 (1992).
[PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 15, 102 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, D. Payne, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 997.

Salathé, R. P.

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, B. Leuenberger, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 1005.

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47, (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

Sceats, M. G.

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1993).

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Wong, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 408, paper PD16; Opt. Lett. 17, 1773 (1992).
[PubMed]

Wehr, H.

Whitbread, T.

Wiechert, D. U.

Wong, D.

D. Wong, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 408, paper PD16; Opt. Lett. 17, 1773 (1992).
[PubMed]

Zimmer, Ch.

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, Electron. Lett. 29, 385 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, P. Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 29, 47, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

C. Fiori, R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. P. Bernardin, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

M. G. Sceats, P. A. Krug, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 113 (1993).

H. G. Limberger, P.Y. Fonjallaz, P. Lambelet, R. P. Salathé, Ch. Zimmer, H. H. Gilgen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2044, 272 (1993).

Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, B. Leuenberger, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 1005.

Other

D. Wong, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 408, paper PD16; Opt. Lett. 17, 1773 (1992).
[PubMed]

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, P. St. J. Russell, D. Payne, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), p. 997.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Radial distribution of the axial stress σz before (dotted curves) and after (solid curves) irradiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplitude of the index modulation and corresponding axial stress at the fiber center for gratings fabricated with different fluences.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the index change and the stress change for three different fibers. Estimated uncertainties are represented as boxes in two cases.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ z ( r ) = - 1 π C r R Δ ( y ) y 2 - r 2 d y ,
σ r ( r ) = 1 r 2 0 r σ z ( s ) s d s ,
σ Θ ( r ) = σ z ( r ) - σ r ( r ) .

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