Abstract

We report storage and electrical switching of holographic image data in an economical polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal material. The hologram is recorded in a fast, single-step process and can be reversibly erased and restored repeatedly by the application of fields of approximately 10–15 V/μm, with a response time of 22 μs and a relaxation time of 42 μs. Simple (quasi-sinusoidal) holographic transmission gratings also are studied with switching fields of <5 V/μm and with response and relaxation times of 25 and 44 μs, respectively.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. McManus, S. Putman, H. J. Caulfield, U.S. Statutory Invention Registration H738 (February6, 1990).
  2. P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, L. J. Barnes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1969, 2 (1993).
  3. L. H. Domash, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1773, 372 (1992).
  4. M. Stalder, P. Ehbets, Opt. Lett. 19, 1 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Knop, Appl. Opt. 17, 3598 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Knop, H. W. Lehmann, R. Widmer, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3841 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Knop, J. Kane, U.S. patent4,251,137 (February17, 1981).
  8. H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).
  9. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).
  12. B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. D. Jacobs, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. IV, Part 2, pp. 409–465.
  14. I.-C. Khoo, S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), p. 187.
  15. J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, M. B. Sponsler, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2042, 238 (1994).
  16. J. Zhang, M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1506 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. H. Whitney, R. T. Ingwall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1213, 18 (1990).
  18. R. T. Ingwall, M. A. Troll, D. H. Whitney, U.S. patent5,198,912 (March30, 1993).
  19. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vas, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
    [Crossref]

1994 (4)

M. Stalder, P. Ehbets, Opt. Lett. 19, 1 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, M. B. Sponsler, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2042, 238 (1994).

1993 (2)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, L. J. Barnes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1969, 2 (1993).

1992 (3)

L. H. Domash, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1773, 372 (1992).

H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).

J. Zhang, M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1506 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. H. Whitney, R. T. Ingwall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1213, 18 (1990).

1989 (1)

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vas, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

K. Knop, H. W. Lehmann, R. Widmer, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3841 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).

Barnes, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, L. J. Barnes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1969, 2 (1993).

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Carlen, C. R.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, M. B. Sponsler, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2042, 238 (1994).

Caulfield, H. J.

J. B. McManus, S. Putman, H. J. Caulfield, U.S. Statutory Invention Registration H738 (February6, 1990).

Doane, J. W.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vas, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[Crossref]

Domash, L. H.

L. H. Domash, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1773, 372 (1992).

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, L. J. Barnes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1969, 2 (1993).

Ehbets, P.

Erdmann, J. H.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gotoh, T.

H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).

Hasegawa, E.

H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).

Ingwall, R. T.

D. H. Whitney, R. T. Ingwall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1213, 18 (1990).

R. T. Ingwall, M. A. Troll, D. H. Whitney, U.S. patent5,198,912 (March30, 1993).

Jacobs, S. D.

S. D. Jacobs, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. IV, Part 2, pp. 409–465.

Kane, J.

K. Knop, J. Kane, U.S. patent4,251,137 (February17, 1981).

Khoo, I.-C.

I.-C. Khoo, S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), p. 187.

Knop, K.

K. Knop, H. W. Lehmann, R. Widmer, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3841 (1979).
[Crossref]

K. Knop, Appl. Opt. 17, 3598 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Knop, J. Kane, U.S. patent4,251,137 (February17, 1981).

Lehmann, H. W.

K. Knop, H. W. Lehmann, R. Widmer, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3841 (1979).
[Crossref]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, L. J. Barnes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1969, 2 (1993).

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, S. Putman, H. J. Caulfield, U.S. Statutory Invention Registration H738 (February6, 1990).

Mizoguchi, K.

H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).

Murai, H.

H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Palmer, S.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, M. B. Sponsler, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2042, 238 (1994).

Putman, S.

J. B. McManus, S. Putman, H. J. Caulfield, U.S. Statutory Invention Registration H738 (February6, 1990).

Sponsler, M. B.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, M. B. Sponsler, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2042, 238 (1994).

J. Zhang, M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1506 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stalder, M.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Troll, M. A.

R. T. Ingwall, M. A. Troll, D. H. Whitney, U.S. patent5,198,912 (March30, 1993).

Vas, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vas, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[Crossref]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, L. J. Barnes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1969, 2 (1993).

Whitney, D. H.

D. H. Whitney, R. T. Ingwall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1213, 18 (1990).

R. T. Ingwall, M. A. Troll, D. H. Whitney, U.S. patent5,198,912 (March30, 1993).

Widmer, R.

K. Knop, H. W. Lehmann, R. Widmer, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3841 (1979).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.-G.

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vas, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

I.-C. Khoo, S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), p. 187.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, M. B. Sponsler, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2042, 238 (1994).

J. Zhang, M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1506 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vas, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vas, B.-G. Wu, S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Zhang, M. B. Sponsler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1506 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Knop, H. W. Lehmann, R. Widmer, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3841 (1979).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

B.-G. Wu, J. H. Erdmann, J. W. Doane, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1453 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, L. J. Barnes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1969, 2 (1993).

L. H. Domash, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1773, 372 (1992).

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2152, 303 (1994).

D. H. Whitney, R. T. Ingwall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1213, 18 (1990).

J. Zhang, C. R. Carlen, S. Palmer, M. B. Sponsler, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2042, 238 (1994).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. (1)

H. Murai, T. Gotoh, M. Suzuki, E. Hasegawa, K. Mizoguchi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instum. Eng. 1665, 230 (1992).

Other (5)

K. Knop, J. Kane, U.S. patent4,251,137 (February17, 1981).

J. B. McManus, S. Putman, H. J. Caulfield, U.S. Statutory Invention Registration H738 (February6, 1990).

R. T. Ingwall, M. A. Troll, D. H. Whitney, U.S. patent5,198,912 (March30, 1993).

S. D. Jacobs, in Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. IV, Part 2, pp. 409–465.

I.-C. Khoo, S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), p. 187.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph showing the projected hologram of a half-dollar coin recorded in a PDLC film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three-dimensional representations of the diffraction intensity for a digitized image of the hologram shown in Fig. 1: (a) no field applied, (b) field applied (13 V/μm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time response of the total diffracted intensity from the image hologram with the application of a 240-V dc pulse.

Equations (1)

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τ off = γ a 2 k 33 ( l 2 - 1 ) ,

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