Abstract

We report the fixing of photorefractive holographic gratings with high efficiency in a sample of K1−yLiyTa1−xNbxO3 doped with Cu, V, and Ti. Holograms are thermally fixed through the screening of a photorefractive space-charge field by a nonphotoactive species at elevated temperatures. Fixed holograms are revealed by illumination at lower temperatures. Diffraction efficiencies of 25% in a 0.54-cm-thick sample are measured. Holograms undergo thermal decay with a 0.67-eV activation energy.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Amodei, D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2323 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, B. O’Conner, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 1079 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Scherban, A. S. Nowick, L. A. Boatner, M. M. Abraham, Appl. Phys. A 55, 324 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 171 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Yariv, V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).
  10. A. Yariv, S. Orlov, G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, Opt. Lett. 20, 1334 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 40, 543 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Klauer, M. Wohlecke, S. Kapphan, Phys. Rev. B 45, 2786 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Krishan, K. K. Srivastava, K. Lal, J. Phys. C 8, 71 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, B. O’Conner, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 1079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

T. Scherban, A. S. Nowick, L. A. Boatner, M. M. Abraham, Appl. Phys. A 55, 324 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Klauer, M. Wohlecke, S. Kapphan, Phys. Rev. B 45, 2786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1982 (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 40, 543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

I. Krishan, K. K. Srivastava, K. Lal, J. Phys. C 8, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. Amodei, D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M. M.

T. Scherban, A. S. Nowick, L. A. Boatner, M. M. Abraham, Appl. Phys. A 55, 324 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A.

Amodei, J.

J. Amodei, D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

T. Scherban, A. S. Nowick, L. A. Boatner, M. M. Abraham, Appl. Phys. A 55, 324 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Hofmeister, R.

Kapphan, S.

S. Klauer, M. Wohlecke, S. Kapphan, Phys. Rev. B 45, 2786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 40, 543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Klauer, S.

S. Klauer, M. Wohlecke, S. Kapphan, Phys. Rev. B 45, 2786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kratzig, E.

H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 40, 543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Krishan, I.

I. Krishan, K. K. Srivastava, K. Lal, J. Phys. C 8, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lal, K.

I. Krishan, K. K. Srivastava, K. Lal, J. Phys. C 8, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

A. Yariv, S. Orlov, G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, Opt. Lett. 20, 1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, B. O’Conner, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 1079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Montemezzani, G.

Nowick, A. S.

T. Scherban, A. S. Nowick, L. A. Boatner, M. M. Abraham, Appl. Phys. A 55, 324 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Conner, B.

V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, B. O’Conner, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 1079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Orlov, S.

Rakuljic, G. A.

A. Yariv, S. Orlov, G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, Opt. Lett. 20, 1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, B. O’Conner, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 1079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Scherban, T.

T. Scherban, A. S. Nowick, L. A. Boatner, M. M. Abraham, Appl. Phys. A 55, 324 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, K. K.

I. Krishan, K. K. Srivastava, K. Lal, J. Phys. C 8, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D.

J. Amodei, D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Vormann, H.

H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 40, 543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weber, G.

H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 40, 543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wohlecke, M.

S. Klauer, M. Wohlecke, S. Kapphan, Phys. Rev. B 45, 2786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, S. Orlov, G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, Opt. Lett. 20, 1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agranat, R. Hofmeister, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 713 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 14, 1017 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Zgonik, M.

Appl Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, B. O’Conner, Appl Phys. Lett. 65, 1079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

T. Scherban, A. S. Nowick, L. A. Boatner, M. M. Abraham, Appl. Phys. A 55, 324 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Amodei, D. Staebler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. C (1)

I. Krishan, K. K. Srivastava, K. Lal, J. Phys. C 8, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Klauer, M. Wohlecke, S. Kapphan, Phys. Rev. B 45, 2786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. Vormann, G. Weber, S. Kapphan, E. Kratzig, Solid State Commun. 40, 543 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv, V. Leyva, G. A. Rakuljic, in Digest of Conference on Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Revealing of a fixed hologram in KLTN at T =5°C under illumination with a 488-nm beam of 175-mW/cm2 intensity. The fixed diffraction efficiency reached a value of 25%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal decay lifetimes of fixed holograms in KLTN. The lifetimes display an Arrhenius dependence with an activation an energy of EA =0.67 ± 6 0.03 eV.

Equations (2)

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τ = ( ω i + D i K 2 + i K μ i E 0 ) - 1 ,
τ ( T ) = t 0 exp ( E A / k B T ) .

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