Abstract

We demonstrate a coherent atomic beam splitter for metastable helium atoms, based on the diffraction of atomic matter waves from a blazed phase grating. The beam splitter is created by driving the two transitions of a three-level V system with differentially detuned standing light waves that have a relative spatial phase shift of π/2. The light fields create a potential that is approximately triangular as a function of position in the laser field. Splittings of 38 times the photon momentum have been observed.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, the special issue onoptics and interferometry with atoms, Appl. Phys. B 54, 319–485 (1992).
  2. M. Weitz, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2563 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Weiss, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2706 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Lawall, M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 993 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Pfau, C. S. Adams, J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett. 21, 439 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. S. Adams, T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2108 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Grimm, J. Soding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, Opt. Lett. 19, 658 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. E. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Although the difference in frequency Δ of the two standing waves implies a difference δk = Δ/c in their k vectors, this difference is negligible. For cases of experimental interest, δk/k ~ 10−7.
  15. J. Lawall, “A coherent atomic beamsplitter based on adiabatic passage,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

1994 (4)

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grimm, J. Soding, Yu. B. Ovchinnikov, Opt. Lett. 19, 658 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

T. Pfau, C. S. Adams, J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett. 21, 439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Adams, T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Weiss, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2706 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, the special issue onoptics and interferometry with atoms, Appl. Phys. B 54, 319–485 (1992).

1991 (1)

M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

P. E. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. S.

T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, C. S. Adams, J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett. 21, 439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Adams, T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atlas, S. R.

P. E. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Balykin, V.

T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carnal, O.

T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Weiss, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2706 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerz, C.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldner, L. S.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, P. L.

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

Kasevich, M.

M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtsiefer, Ch.

T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Adams, T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawall, J.

J. Lawall, M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, “A coherent atomic beamsplitter based on adiabatic passage,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

Marte, P.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

T. Pfau, C. S. Adams, J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett. 21, 439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Adams, T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, P. E.

P. E. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ovchinnikov, Yu. B.

Pfau, T.

T. Pfau, C. S. Adams, J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett. 21, 439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Adams, T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M. G.

J. Lawall, M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, S. L.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruff, G. A.

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, M.

T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sleator, T.

T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soding, J.

Spreew, R. J. C.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, D. S.

D. S. Weiss, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2706 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, M.

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, C. I.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, B. C.

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Weiss, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2706 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

See, for example, the special issue onoptics and interferometry with atoms, Appl. Phys. B 54, 319–485 (1992).

Europhys. Lett. (1)

T. Pfau, C. S. Adams, J. Mlynek, Europhys. Lett. 21, 439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. S. Adams, T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2108 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

P. E. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gould, G. A. Ruff, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 827 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2563 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Weiss, B. C. Young, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2706 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich, S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, Ch. Kurtsiefer, C. S. Adams, M. Siegel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sleator, T. Pfau, V. Balykin, O. Carnal, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1996 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreew, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. Marte, P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lawall, M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Although the difference in frequency Δ of the two standing waves implies a difference δk = Δ/c in their k vectors, this difference is negligible. For cases of experimental interest, δk/k ~ 10−7.

J. Lawall, “A coherent atomic beamsplitter based on adiabatic passage,” Ph.D. dissertation (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the V system. Ω interacts only with the |g〉 → |e〉 transition, and Ω+ interacts only with the |g〉 → |e+〉 transition. The spatial dependence of the driving fields is given by Ω± = Ω cos(kz ± χ/2), the differential detuning is Δ, and χ is the spatial phase shift between the two standing waves.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Eigenvalues as a function of position in the laser field for phases of π/2, π/4, and π. In each case the central, darker energy level is connected adiabatically to |g〉 as Ω → 0. (b) The dashed curves correspond to the theoretical far-field momentum distributions calculated by integrating the Schrödinger equation; the dotted curves represent the atomic beam in the absence of laser interaction; the solid curves correspond to the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of experimental apparatus. λ/2 wave plate 1 and the first polarizing beam splitter (PBS1) are used to control the intensity of the light that goes to each acousto-optic modulator (AOM1 and AOM2). The laser beams then are recombined on PBS2 and coupled into a polarization-maintaining single-mode optical fiber. The λ/4 plate transforms the linear polarized light into the two orthogonal circular polarization states before the light is focused onto the atomic beam. A cat’s-eye retroreflector creates the standing wave.

Equations (1)

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H = / 2 [ Δ 0 - Ω + 0 - Δ - Ω - - Ω + - Ω - 0 ] .

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