Abstract

We report the observation of light-induced director reorientation under the application of an electric field in a chiral smectic A liquid crystal owing to the temperature dependence of the electroclinic coefficient. We also demonstrate the occurrence of another light-induced phenomenon that leads to optic axis rotation, whose origin is not yet clear. Finally, we show that thermal indexing cannot be neglected when fitting the experimental data.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 69, 31 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. H. Lippel, C. Y. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 909 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. L. Ong, C. Y. Young, Phys. Rev. A 29, 297 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. MacDonald, J. Schwartz, H. J. Eichler, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 103 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848 (1977); Phys. Rev. A 19, 338 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Umeton, A. Sgrò, F. Simoni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1938 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).
  9. G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Simoni, in Physics of Liquid Crystalline Materials, I. C. Khoo, F. Simoni, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1991), pp. 365–394.

1992 (1)

R. MacDonald, J. Schwartz, H. J. Eichler, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1983 (2)

P. H. Lippel, C. Y. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 909 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Ong, C. Y. Young, Phys. Rev. A 29, 297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 69, 31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848 (1977); Phys. Rev. A 19, 338 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, G.

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Carlsson, T.

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dahl, I.

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

R. MacDonald, J. Schwartz, H. J. Eichler, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Filipic, C.

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Garoff, S.

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848 (1977); Phys. Rev. A 19, 338 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gouda, F.

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Komitov, L.

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lagerwall, S. T.

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Levstik, A.

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lippel, P. H.

P. H. Lippel, C. Y. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 909 (1983).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, R.

R. MacDonald, J. Schwartz, H. J. Eichler, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R. B.

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848 (1977); Phys. Rev. A 19, 338 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. L.

H. L. Ong, C. Y. Young, Phys. Rev. A 29, 297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, J.

R. MacDonald, J. Schwartz, H. J. Eichler, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sgrò, A.

Simoni, F.

C. Umeton, A. Sgrò, F. Simoni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1938 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, in Physics of Liquid Crystalline Materials, I. C. Khoo, F. Simoni, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1991), pp. 365–394.

Skarp, K.

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stebler, B.

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 69, 31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Young, C. Y.

P. H. Lippel, C. Y. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 909 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Ong, C. Y. Young, Phys. Rev. A 29, 297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zeks, B.

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 69, 31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. H. Lippel, C. Y. Young, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 909 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

R. MacDonald, J. Schwartz, H. J. Eichler, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Andersson, I. Dahl, L. Komitov, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4983 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Liq. Cryst. (1)

F. Gouda, G. Andersson, S. T. Lagerwall, K. Skarp, B. Stebler, T. Carlsson, B. Zeks, C. Filipic, A. Levstik, Liq. Cryst. 6, 219 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 69, 31 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. L. Ong, C. Y. Young, Phys. Rev. A 29, 297 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848 (1977); Phys. Rev. A 19, 338 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. Simoni, in Physics of Liquid Crystalline Materials, I. C. Khoo, F. Simoni, eds. (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1991), pp. 365–394.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the experiment. The bounding glass plates are in the plane of the paper. When E ≠ 0, a tilt angle θind ≠ 0 with respect to L is induced through the electroclinic effect. The sample between crossed polarizers (P and A) is rotated so that the initial condition ϕ = 0° for the angle between one of the switching states and P is fulfilled. This state is denoted by D for the dark state and by B for the bright state. LC, liquid-crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission of the probe beam through the sample between crossed polarizers under illumination by the pump beam as a function of pump power at various electric-field strengths (notably, also for the case E = 0) for (a) the bright and (b) the dark states. The dashed curves connect the data points for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Induced tilt angle versus pump power for various electric-field strengths. The dashed curves connect the data points for clarity. The inset shows a fit (solid curve) according to Eq. (3) to the measured values of the electroclinic coefficient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Directly measured light-induced optic axis rotation for the case E = 0. The solid curve shows a fit to the data according to Eq. (4).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission of the probe beam versus pump laser power for E = 7.5 V/μm for (a) the bright and (b) the dark states. The solid curves show fits to the data according to Eqs. (2)(6).

Equations (6)

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θ ind = e C ( T ) E .
T = I I 0 = sin 2 ( δ / 2 ) sin 2 ( 2 ϕ ) ,
e C ( P ) = μ α ( Δ T + k P ) γ - μ 2 ɛ ,
ψ ( P ) = a P + b P 2 + c P 3 ,
δ ( P ) = δ 0 + Δ δ ( P ) = δ 0 + κ P ,
ϕ ( P , E ) = θ 0 ( E ) ± θ ( P , E ) - ψ ( P ) ,

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