Abstract

A new method using a four-layered optical waveguide consisting of both nonlinear and linear materials with normal material dispersions to realize efficient nonlinear interactions is described. Numerical examples and experimental results are also presented for the case of SHG in a glass–ZnS–TiO2–air waveguide with complete phase matching at the TE0 fundamental and TM1 harmonic wavelengths obtained using an optical parametric oscillator. This method improves the conversion efficiency more than 40 times compared with the optimized conventional three-layered nonlinear waveguide to TE0 fundamental and TM2 harmonic together with the thickness tolerance for the phase matching.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Hopkins, A. Miller, “Optical waveguides in barium sodium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 47–50 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ito, N. Uesugi, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided optical second harmonic wave generation in oriented ZnS polycrystalline thin-film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 385–387 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided, optical second-harmonic generation in nonlinear ZnS thin-film waveguide deposited on nonlinear LiNbO3 substrate,” Opt. Commun. 15, 104–107 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, “Second harmonic generation in a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71–73 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, “Second-harmonic generation due to a guided wave structure consisting of quartz coated with a glass film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 137–138 (1973); Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, S. Ibukuro, “Optical second-harmonic generation due to guided-wave structure consisting of quartz and glass film,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 222–229 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. K. Burns, A. B. Lee, “Observation of noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 222–224 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. U. Chen, C. C. Ghizoni, C. L. Tang, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in solid thin films using modulation of the nonlinear susceptibilities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 651–653 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Ito, T. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Phase-method second harmonic generation in four-layered optical waveguide of glass–ZnS–TiO2–air structure,” in Technical Digest of 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC ’77), Tokyo, (1977).
  11. H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Study on phase-matching characteristics of optical second harmonic generation in nonlinear thin film waveguides using a tunable parametric oscillation,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 353–360.

1976 (2)

N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. U. Chen, C. C. Ghizoni, C. L. Tang, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in solid thin films using modulation of the nonlinear susceptibilities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 651–653 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided, optical second-harmonic generation in nonlinear ZnS thin-film waveguide deposited on nonlinear LiNbO3 substrate,” Opt. Commun. 15, 104–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, “Second harmonic generation in a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71–73 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

M. M. Hopkins, A. Miller, “Optical waveguides in barium sodium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 47–50 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, N. Uesugi, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided optical second harmonic wave generation in oriented ZnS polycrystalline thin-film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 385–387 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, A. B. Lee, “Observation of noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 222–224 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, “Second-harmonic generation due to a guided wave structure consisting of quartz coated with a glass film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 137–138 (1973); Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, S. Ibukuro, “Optical second-harmonic generation due to guided-wave structure consisting of quartz and glass film,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 222–229 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, A. B. Lee, “Observation of noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 222–224 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. U.

B. U. Chen, C. C. Ghizoni, C. L. Tang, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in solid thin films using modulation of the nonlinear susceptibilities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 651–653 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, “Second harmonic generation in a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71–73 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ghizoni, C. C.

B. U. Chen, C. C. Ghizoni, C. L. Tang, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in solid thin films using modulation of the nonlinear susceptibilities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 651–653 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, M. M.

M. M. Hopkins, A. Miller, “Optical waveguides in barium sodium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 47–50 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided, optical second-harmonic generation in nonlinear ZnS thin-film waveguide deposited on nonlinear LiNbO3 substrate,” Opt. Commun. 15, 104–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, N. Uesugi, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided optical second harmonic wave generation in oriented ZnS polycrystalline thin-film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 385–387 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, T. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Phase-method second harmonic generation in four-layered optical waveguide of glass–ZnS–TiO2–air structure,” in Technical Digest of 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC ’77), Tokyo, (1977).

H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Study on phase-matching characteristics of optical second harmonic generation in nonlinear thin film waveguides using a tunable parametric oscillation,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 353–360.

Ito, H.

H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided, optical second-harmonic generation in nonlinear ZnS thin-film waveguide deposited on nonlinear LiNbO3 substrate,” Opt. Commun. 15, 104–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, N. Uesugi, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided optical second harmonic wave generation in oriented ZnS polycrystalline thin-film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 385–387 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Study on phase-matching characteristics of optical second harmonic generation in nonlinear thin film waveguides using a tunable parametric oscillation,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 353–360.

H. Ito, T. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Phase-method second harmonic generation in four-layered optical waveguide of glass–ZnS–TiO2–air structure,” in Technical Digest of 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC ’77), Tokyo, (1977).

Kimura, T.

N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. B.

W. K. Burns, A. B. Lee, “Observation of noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 222–224 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mikulyak, R. M.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, “Second harmonic generation in a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71–73 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

M. M. Hopkins, A. Miller, “Optical waveguides in barium sodium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 47–50 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nordland, W. A.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, “Second-harmonic generation due to a guided wave structure consisting of quartz coated with a glass film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 137–138 (1973); Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, S. Ibukuro, “Optical second-harmonic generation due to guided-wave structure consisting of quartz and glass film,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 222–229 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, K.

Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, “Second-harmonic generation due to a guided wave structure consisting of quartz coated with a glass film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 137–138 (1973); Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, S. Ibukuro, “Optical second-harmonic generation due to guided-wave structure consisting of quartz and glass film,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 222–229 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, “Second-harmonic generation due to a guided wave structure consisting of quartz coated with a glass film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 137–138 (1973); Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, S. Ibukuro, “Optical second-harmonic generation due to guided-wave structure consisting of quartz and glass film,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 222–229 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

B. U. Chen, C. C. Ghizoni, C. L. Tang, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in solid thin films using modulation of the nonlinear susceptibilities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 651–653 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Uesugi, N.

N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, N. Uesugi, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided optical second harmonic wave generation in oriented ZnS polycrystalline thin-film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 385–387 (1974).
[CrossRef]

van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, “Second harmonic generation in a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71–73 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

H. Ito, T. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Phase-method second harmonic generation in four-layered optical waveguide of glass–ZnS–TiO2–air structure,” in Technical Digest of 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC ’77), Tokyo, (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. M. Hopkins, A. Miller, “Optical waveguides in barium sodium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 47–50 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, W. A. Nordland, R. M. Mikulyak, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in GaAs optical waveguides by focused laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238–240 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, N. Uesugi, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided optical second harmonic wave generation in oriented ZnS polycrystalline thin-film waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 385–387 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, “Second harmonic generation in a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71–73 (1975).
[CrossRef]

N. Uesugi, T. Kimura, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in three-dimensional LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 572–574 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, “Second-harmonic generation due to a guided wave structure consisting of quartz coated with a glass film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 137–138 (1973); Y. Suematsu, Y. Sasaki, K. Shibata, S. Ibukuro, “Optical second-harmonic generation due to guided-wave structure consisting of quartz and glass film,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 222–229 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, A. B. Lee, “Observation of noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 222–224 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. U. Chen, C. C. Ghizoni, C. L. Tang, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in solid thin films using modulation of the nonlinear susceptibilities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 651–653 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Phase-matched guided, optical second-harmonic generation in nonlinear ZnS thin-film waveguide deposited on nonlinear LiNbO3 substrate,” Opt. Commun. 15, 104–107 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Ito, T. Yamada, H. Inaba, “Phase-method second harmonic generation in four-layered optical waveguide of glass–ZnS–TiO2–air structure,” in Technical Digest of 1977 International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC ’77), Tokyo, (1977).

H. Ito, H. Inaba, “Study on phase-matching characteristics of optical second harmonic generation in nonlinear thin film waveguides using a tunable parametric oscillation,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 353–360.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A four-layered nonlinear optical waveguide structure whose refractive index condition is n1, n4 < n2, n3. The transverse field distributions gω(x) and g2ω(x) of TE0 fundamental and TM1 harmonic modes for the case of second-harmonic generation are also shown schematically.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The normalized spatial coupling coefficient, the phase-matched waveguide thickness of TiO2, and the effective refractive index of glass–ZnS–TiO2–air waveguide for SHG of 0.924-μm fundamental as a function of phase-matched thickness of ZnS film. The interacting modes are TE0 fundamental and TM1 harmonic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental tuning curve of the phase-matched second-harmonic generation in the glass–ZnS–TiO2–air four-layered waveguide as a function of the fundamental wavelength.

Equations (4)

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P 2 ω = μ 0 0 32 π 2 ( P ω ) 2 ( n e ω ) 2 n e 2 ω λ 2 × L 2 W I 2 i ( d e i ) 2 sin 2 ( Δ β L 2 ) ( Δ β L / 2 ) 2 .
I = 1 i ( d e i ) 2 t 2 ω ( t ω ) 2 ( t 2 ω ) 2 × - d e ( x ) g ω ( x ) g ω ( x ) g 2 ω ( x ) d x .
t ω = [ g ω ( x ) ] 2 d x , t 2 ω = n e 2 1 n 2 [ g 2 ω ( x ) ] 2 d x .
t 2 ω = [ g 2 ω ( x ) ] 2 d x .

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