Abstract

The spectra of plasmas produced by focusing the output of a Q-switched ruby laser (output 1 J) on the rare-earth metals have been studied. From samarium (Z = 62) to ytterbium (Z = 70), strong quasi-uniform continua are emitted in the wavelength range 40–2000 Å. Line emission from the target elements is absent over most of this wavelength region, particularly below about 600 Å. The use of these continua as simple, reliable background sources for absorption spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft x-ray region down to 40 Å is demonstrated.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Carillon, P. Jaegle, P. Dhez, “Extreme ultraviolet continuum absorption by a laser-generated aluminum plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 140 (1970);A. Carillon, G. Jamelot, A. Sureau, P. Jaegle, “Autoionizing series in the Al3+ ion spectrum of a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Lett. 38A, 91 (1972);F. P. J. Valero, “Intensity anomalies in the extreme VUV spectrum of Al3+ obtained in a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 64 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Ehler, G. L. Weissler, “Vacuum ultraviolet radiation from plasmas formed by a laser on metal surfaces,”; Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 89 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Breton, R. Papoular, “Vacuum UV radiation of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1225 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, “Doubly excited autoionization resonances in the absorption spectrum of Li+ formed in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1068 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Newly observed structure in the photoionization continua of Kr and Xe below 160 Å,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1434 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. K. Carroll, K. Yoshino, “The cn1∏u-c′n1∑u+ Rydberg states of N2; high resolution studies,” J. Phys. B 5, 1614 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. A. Rense, T. Violett, “Method of Increasing the speed of a grazing-incidence spectrograph,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 139 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, “Doubly excited autoionization resonances in the absorption spectrum of Li+ formed in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1068 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

P. K. Carroll, K. Yoshino, “The cn1∏u-c′n1∑u+ Rydberg states of N2; high resolution studies,” J. Phys. B 5, 1614 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Carillon, P. Jaegle, P. Dhez, “Extreme ultraviolet continuum absorption by a laser-generated aluminum plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 140 (1970);A. Carillon, G. Jamelot, A. Sureau, P. Jaegle, “Autoionizing series in the Al3+ ion spectrum of a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Lett. 38A, 91 (1972);F. P. J. Valero, “Intensity anomalies in the extreme VUV spectrum of Al3+ obtained in a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. W. Ehler, G. L. Weissler, “Vacuum ultraviolet radiation from plasmas formed by a laser on metal surfaces,”; Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 89 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Newly observed structure in the photoionization continua of Kr and Xe below 160 Å,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1434 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

Breton, C.

Carillon, A.

A. Carillon, P. Jaegle, P. Dhez, “Extreme ultraviolet continuum absorption by a laser-generated aluminum plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 140 (1970);A. Carillon, G. Jamelot, A. Sureau, P. Jaegle, “Autoionizing series in the Al3+ ion spectrum of a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Lett. 38A, 91 (1972);F. P. J. Valero, “Intensity anomalies in the extreme VUV spectrum of Al3+ obtained in a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P. K.

P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, “Doubly excited autoionization resonances in the absorption spectrum of Li+ formed in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1068 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Carroll, K. Yoshino, “The cn1∏u-c′n1∑u+ Rydberg states of N2; high resolution studies,” J. Phys. B 5, 1614 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Newly observed structure in the photoionization continua of Kr and Xe below 160 Å,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1434 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

A. Carillon, P. Jaegle, P. Dhez, “Extreme ultraviolet continuum absorption by a laser-generated aluminum plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 140 (1970);A. Carillon, G. Jamelot, A. Sureau, P. Jaegle, “Autoionizing series in the Al3+ ion spectrum of a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Lett. 38A, 91 (1972);F. P. J. Valero, “Intensity anomalies in the extreme VUV spectrum of Al3+ obtained in a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Egiri, A.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ehler, A. W.

A. W. Ehler, G. L. Weissler, “Vacuum ultraviolet radiation from plasmas formed by a laser on metal surfaces,”; Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 89 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Iguchi, Y.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jaegle, P.

A. Carillon, P. Jaegle, P. Dhez, “Extreme ultraviolet continuum absorption by a laser-generated aluminum plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 140 (1970);A. Carillon, G. Jamelot, A. Sureau, P. Jaegle, “Autoionizing series in the Al3+ ion spectrum of a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Lett. 38A, 91 (1972);F. P. J. Valero, “Intensity anomalies in the extreme VUV spectrum of Al3+ obtained in a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, E. T.

P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, “Doubly excited autoionization resonances in the absorption spectrum of Li+ formed in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1068 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Madden, R. P.

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Newly observed structure in the photoionization continua of Kr and Xe below 160 Å,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1434 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, S.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, Y.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Oshio, T.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Papoular, R.

Rense, W. A.

Sagawa, T.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sasanuma, M.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tamashita, H.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Violett, T.

Watanabe, M.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Weissler, G. L.

A. W. Ehler, G. L. Weissler, “Vacuum ultraviolet radiation from plasmas formed by a laser on metal surfaces,”; Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 89 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

P. K. Carroll, K. Yoshino, “The cn1∏u-c′n1∑u+ Rydberg states of N2; high resolution studies,” J. Phys. B 5, 1614 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, “Newly observed structure in the photoionization continua of Kr and Xe below 160 Å,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1434 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. W. Ehler, G. L. Weissler, “Vacuum ultraviolet radiation from plasmas formed by a laser on metal surfaces,”; Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 89 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

P. K. Carroll, K. Yoshino, “The cn1∏u-c′n1∑u+ Rydberg states of N2; high resolution studies,” J. Phys. B 5, 1614 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Carillon, P. Jaegle, P. Dhez, “Extreme ultraviolet continuum absorption by a laser-generated aluminum plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 140 (1970);A. Carillon, G. Jamelot, A. Sureau, P. Jaegle, “Autoionizing series in the Al3+ ion spectrum of a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Lett. 38A, 91 (1972);F. P. J. Valero, “Intensity anomalies in the extreme VUV spectrum of Al3+ obtained in a laser produced plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 64 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakamura, M. Sasanuma, S. Sato, M. Watanabe, H. Tamashita, Y. Iguchi, A. Egiri, S. Nakai, S. Yamaguchi, T. Sagawa, Y. Nakai, T. Oshio, “Absorption structure near the LII,III edge of argon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1303 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Carroll, E. T. Kennedy, “Doubly excited autoionization resonances in the absorption spectrum of Li+ formed in a laser-produced plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1068 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption spectrum of xenon from 80 to 200 Å. The xenon pressure in the spectrograph was 0.05 Torr, and the number of laser pulses used was 30. For details of the xenon spectrum in this region see Madden and Codling.5 The unmarked weak lines near 200 Å are due to 0 v. Oxygen present in the target gives rise to some emission lines as well. (b) The ytterbium continuum from 60 to 100 Å. The number of laser shots was 20. As in (a), the spectrum was obtained on a Kodak SC5 plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Terbium continuum from 46 to 54 Å obtained with 30 laser shots. (b) Argon L edge absorption corresponding to the transitions 2p63s23p6 1S–2p53s23p66ns,nd. (See Nakamura et al.6) The argon pressure was 0.2 Torr, and 30 laser shots were used. As in Fig. 1, the spectra were recorded on Kodak SC5 plates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The absorption spectrum of N2 from 850 to 880 Å taken on the 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph with the terbium continuum. The number of laser shots required was 200, and the nitrogen pressure in the spectrograph was 3.5 × 10−4 Torr. The spectrum was recorded on Kodak SWR plates. Part of the υ′o absorption progression of the b 1 u + χ 1 g + system is shown, together with a number of Rydberg bands designated R. For a high-resolution analysis of the N2 spectrum in this region, see Carroll and Yoshino7 and references therein.

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