Abstract

We have obtained quantitative measurements on the correction of severely aberrated laser beams using stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) at 0.69 μm. We have shown that under certain conditions SBS can be used to restore an aberrated optical beam to its original unaberrated condition. When an optical beam double passes an aberrating region after reflecting from an “ordinary” mirror (i.e., a plane mirror) the aberration is twice that obtained from a single pass. However, when the aberrated beam enters a medium that allows SBS to occur, it emerges from its second pass through the aberrating medium in the same condition as that in which it originally entered. Quantitative experiments are described in which a single-mode ruby laser beam is intentionally aberrated by passing it through an etched plate. When the beam is allowed to double-pass the plate using an ordinary reflector (i.e., plane mirror), the beam divergence is more than 10 times the diffraction-limited divergence. However, when we replace the ordinary reflector with a cell in which SBS can take place, the SBS reflected beam is restored to diffraction-limited divergence when it is allowed to pass back through the aberrating medium. Applications of this time-reversal or phase-reversal technique for correcting aberrations in optical trains and atmospheric turbulence are discussed.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. E. Pearson, “Atmospheric turbulence compensation using coherent optical adaptive techniques,” Appl. Opt. 15, 662 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67 (1977) (special issue on adaptive optics).
    [PubMed]
  3. V. Wang, “Nonlinear optical phase conjugation for laser systems” Opt. Eng. (to be published).
  4. T. A. Wiggins, R. V. Wick, D. H. Rank, “Stimulated effects in N2 and CH4 gases,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1069 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. 15, 160–164 (1972).
  6. O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a Brillouin mirror,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. 16, 617–621, (1972); translated in Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972).
  7. M. Bel’dyugin, M. G. Galushkin, E. M. Zemskov, V. I. Mandrosov, “Complex conjugation of fields in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1349 (1976); V. G. Sidorovich, “Theory of the ‘Brillouin mirror’,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 1270 (1976); G. G. Kochemasox, V. D. Nikolaev, “Reproduction of the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of a pump beam in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 60 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Lukosz, “Equivalent-lens theory of holographic imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1084 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Hellwarth, “Generation of time-reversed wavefronts by nonlinear refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., 67, 1 (1977); A. Yariv, “Compensation for atmospheric degradation of optical beam transmission by nonlinear optical mixing,” Opt. Commun. 21, 49 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. R. Giuliano, D. Y. Tseng, “Damage in lithium iodate with and without second harmonic generation,” presented at the Symposium on Damage in Laser Materials, Boulder, Colorado, May 1973.
  11. A. Yariv, “On transmission and recovery of three-dimensional image information in optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 301 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Yariv, D. M. Pepper, “Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 1, 16 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (3)

1976 (3)

A. Yariv, “On transmission and recovery of three-dimensional image information in optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 301 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Bel’dyugin, M. G. Galushkin, E. M. Zemskov, V. I. Mandrosov, “Complex conjugation of fields in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1349 (1976); V. G. Sidorovich, “Theory of the ‘Brillouin mirror’,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 1270 (1976); G. G. Kochemasox, V. D. Nikolaev, “Reproduction of the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of a pump beam in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pearson, “Atmospheric turbulence compensation using coherent optical adaptive techniques,” Appl. Opt. 15, 662 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. 15, 160–164 (1972).

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a Brillouin mirror,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. 16, 617–621, (1972); translated in Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972).

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

Bel’dyugin, M.

M. Bel’dyugin, M. G. Galushkin, E. M. Zemskov, V. I. Mandrosov, “Complex conjugation of fields in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1349 (1976); V. G. Sidorovich, “Theory of the ‘Brillouin mirror’,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 1270 (1976); G. G. Kochemasox, V. D. Nikolaev, “Reproduction of the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of a pump beam in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Faizullov, F. S.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. 15, 160–164 (1972).

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a Brillouin mirror,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. 16, 617–621, (1972); translated in Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972).

Galushkin, M. G.

M. Bel’dyugin, M. G. Galushkin, E. M. Zemskov, V. I. Mandrosov, “Complex conjugation of fields in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1349 (1976); V. G. Sidorovich, “Theory of the ‘Brillouin mirror’,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 1270 (1976); G. G. Kochemasox, V. D. Nikolaev, “Reproduction of the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of a pump beam in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Giuliano, C. R.

C. R. Giuliano, D. Y. Tseng, “Damage in lithium iodate with and without second harmonic generation,” presented at the Symposium on Damage in Laser Materials, Boulder, Colorado, May 1973.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Lukosz, W.

Mandrosov, V. I.

M. Bel’dyugin, M. G. Galushkin, E. M. Zemskov, V. I. Mandrosov, “Complex conjugation of fields in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1349 (1976); V. G. Sidorovich, “Theory of the ‘Brillouin mirror’,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 1270 (1976); G. G. Kochemasox, V. D. Nikolaev, “Reproduction of the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of a pump beam in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nosach, O. Yu.

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a Brillouin mirror,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. 16, 617–621, (1972); translated in Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972).

Pearson, J. E.

J. E. Pearson, “Atmospheric turbulence compensation using coherent optical adaptive techniques,” Appl. Opt. 15, 662 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

Popovichev, V. I.

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a Brillouin mirror,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. 16, 617–621, (1972); translated in Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972).

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. 15, 160–164 (1972).

Ragul’skii, V. V.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. 15, 160–164 (1972).

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a Brillouin mirror,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. 16, 617–621, (1972); translated in Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972).

Rank, D. H.

Tseng, D. Y.

C. R. Giuliano, D. Y. Tseng, “Damage in lithium iodate with and without second harmonic generation,” presented at the Symposium on Damage in Laser Materials, Boulder, Colorado, May 1973.

Wang, V.

V. Wang, “Nonlinear optical phase conjugation for laser systems” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Wick, R. V.

Wiggins, T. A.

Yariv, A.

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. 15, 160–164 (1972).

Zemskov, E. M.

M. Bel’dyugin, M. G. Galushkin, E. M. Zemskov, V. I. Mandrosov, “Complex conjugation of fields in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1349 (1976); V. G. Sidorovich, “Theory of the ‘Brillouin mirror’,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 1270 (1976); G. G. Kochemasox, V. D. Nikolaev, “Reproduction of the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of a pump beam in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. E. Pearson, “Atmospheric turbulence compensation using coherent optical adaptive techniques,” Appl. Opt. 15, 662 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Wiggins, R. V. Wick, D. H. Rank, “Stimulated effects in N2 and CH4 gases,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1069 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Bel’dyugin, M. G. Galushkin, E. M. Zemskov, V. I. Mandrosov, “Complex conjugation of fields in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1349 (1976); V. G. Sidorovich, “Theory of the ‘Brillouin mirror’,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 1270 (1976); G. G. Kochemasox, V. D. Nikolaev, “Reproduction of the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of a pump beam in stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. (1)

O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Cancellation of phase distortions in an amplifying medium with a Brillouin mirror,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fix. Pis. Red. 16, 617–621, (1972); translated in Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. (1)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, “Connection between the wavefronts of the reflected and exciting light in stimulated Mandel’shtam–Brillouin scattering,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis. Red. 15, 160–164 (1972).

Other (2)

V. Wang, “Nonlinear optical phase conjugation for laser systems” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

C. R. Giuliano, D. Y. Tseng, “Damage in lithium iodate with and without second harmonic generation,” presented at the Symposium on Damage in Laser Materials, Boulder, Colorado, May 1973.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A conceptual pulsed laser system using SBS for correction of atmospheric and laser-induced distortions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experiment to measure the beam divergence of SBS backscatter at 0.69 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured full-angle beam divergences of original, aberrated, and corrected beams and their appearance in the far field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A simplified view of the SBS phase conjugating process as a moving multilayer reflector.

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