Abstract

A temperature- and strain-compensated two-mode fiber-optic bending sensor is presented. This sensor has the unique ability to measure bending over complex and arbitrary paths, using a strictly passive sensing tether. Experimental evidence demonstrates the properties of the sensor and the effectiveness of the compensation technique.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. A. Castro, S. R. M. Carneiro, O. Lisbôa, S. L. A. Carrara, Opt. Lett. 17, 1474 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. L. A. Carrara, S. F. M. Almeida, C. E. Covington, J. N. Blake, “Two-mode fiber with slight core asymmetry and its applications to sensing,” submitted toAppl. Opt.
  3. O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.
  4. A. Kumar, R. L. Gallawa, Opt. Lett. 18, 1415 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 389 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

Almeida, S. F. M.

S. L. A. Carrara, S. F. M. Almeida, C. E. Covington, J. N. Blake, “Two-mode fiber with slight core asymmetry and its applications to sensing,” submitted toAppl. Opt.

O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.

Blake, J. N.

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 389 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. A. Carrara, S. F. M. Almeida, C. E. Covington, J. N. Blake, “Two-mode fiber with slight core asymmetry and its applications to sensing,” submitted toAppl. Opt.

Carneiro, S. R. M.

Carrara, S. L. A.

F. A. Castro, S. R. M. Carneiro, O. Lisbôa, S. L. A. Carrara, Opt. Lett. 17, 1474 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. A. Carrara, S. F. M. Almeida, C. E. Covington, J. N. Blake, “Two-mode fiber with slight core asymmetry and its applications to sensing,” submitted toAppl. Opt.

O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.

Castro, F. A.

Covington, C. E.

S. L. A. Carrara, S. F. M. Almeida, C. E. Covington, J. N. Blake, “Two-mode fiber with slight core asymmetry and its applications to sensing,” submitted toAppl. Opt.

Engan, H. E.

Gallawa, R. L.

Jen, C. K.

O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.

Kim, B. Y.

Kumar, A.

Lisbôa, O.

F. A. Castro, S. R. M. Carneiro, O. Lisbôa, S. L. A. Carrara, Opt. Lett. 17, 1474 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.

Oliveira, J. E. B.

O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.

Santos, C. A.

O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.

Shaw, H. J.

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

S. L. A. Carrara, S. F. M. Almeida, C. E. Covington, J. N. Blake, “Two-mode fiber with slight core asymmetry and its applications to sensing,” submitted toAppl. Opt.

O. Lisbôa, C. A. Santos, C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, S. F. M. Almeida, S. L. A. Carrara, presented at the Fifth Conference on Smart Structures and Skins, Boston, Mass., September 1992.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature- and strain-compensated two-mode fiber bending sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of the sensing tether showing the orientation of the fibers. The arrows indicate the direction of the profile’s asymmetry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

System response for various bending paths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

System response to axial strain (symbols). The strain response of a single two-mode fiber (solid line) is shown for comparison.

Equations (6)

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E 1 ( t , z ) = exp ( j ω t ) exp [ - j β 01 ( z + Δ z 01 ) ] × exp ( - j ω a t ) exp [ - j β 11 ( z - Δ z 11 ) ] ,
E 2 ( t , z ) = exp ( j ω t ) exp [ - j β 11 ( z + Δ z 11 ) ] × exp ( j ω a t ) exp [ - j β 11 ( z - Δ z 01 ) ] ,
E 1 ( t , z ) = exp [ j ( ω - ω a ) t - j β o ( 2 z + Δ z ) ] ,
E 2 ( t , z ) = exp [ j ( ω + ω a ) t - j β o ( 2 z - Δ z ) ] .
I ( t , Δ z ) = 2 + 2 cos ( 2 ω a t + 2 β o Δ z ) .
I ( t , θ ) = 2 + 2 cos ( 2 ω a t + 2 α β o θ ) ,

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