Abstract

Operation of an f/5 thermal-defocusing/scattering optical limiter is described. Thermal-defocusing limiting of 6-ns-duration, 532-nm laser pulses occurs by use of the broadband-absorbing dye Nigrosin dissolved in carbon disulfide. Additional limiting due to thermally induced scattering occurs at high incident fluences (above a threshold fluence) when either surface-roughened BASF-1 glass windows are in contact with the dye solution or microscopic glass fibers are added to the liquid cell. Limiter figures of merit are improved by factors of 2 and 4, respectively, over that of a purely thermal-defocusing limiter.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. C. C. Leite, S. P. Porto, T. C. Damen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 100 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. A. Hermann, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1692 (1992).
  4. B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  5. The thermal figure of merit is defined as (dn/dT)/cp, where dn/dT is the rate of change of the index of refraction with respect to temperature, c is the specific heat, and ρ is the solution density.
  6. K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Power Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. D-1.
  7. K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, Opt. Lett. 17, 1055 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. J. Campillo, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, G. A. Swartzlander, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. G-1.
  12. C. Macaskill, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 88 (1991).
  13. J. A. Sanchez-Gil, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1270 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper MU4.
  15. B. L. Justus, Z. H. Kafafi, A. L. Hustohl, Opt. Lett. 18, 1603 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. L. Justus, Z. H. Kafafi, A. L. Hustohl, Opt. Lett. 18, 1603 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (2)

C. Macaskill, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 88 (1991).

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1270 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. A. Hermann, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

R. C. C. Leite, S. P. Porto, T. C. Damen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 100 (1967).
[Crossref]

Arabia, G.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. A.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Power Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. D-1.

Campillo, A. J.

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. J. Campillo, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, G. A. Swartzlander, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. G-1.

Chidichimo, G.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cipparrone, G.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
[Crossref]

Damen, T. C.

R. C. C. Leite, S. P. Porto, T. C. Damen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 100 (1967).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper MU4.

Hermann, J. A.

J. A. Hermann, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
[Crossref]

Honey, R. C.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Power Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. D-1.

Hustohl, A. L.

Huston, A. L.

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483 (1993).
[Crossref]

G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. J. Campillo, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, G. A. Swartzlander, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. G-1.

Justus, B. L.

G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. L. Justus, Z. H. Kafafi, A. L. Hustohl, Opt. Lett. 18, 1603 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Campillo, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, G. A. Swartzlander, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. G-1.

Kafafi, Z. H.

Law, C. T.

G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lawson, C. M.

Leite, R. C. C.

R. C. C. Leite, S. P. Porto, T. C. Damen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 100 (1967).
[Crossref]

Macaskill, C.

Mansour, K.

Michael, R. R.

Nashold, K. M.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Power Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. D-1.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1270 (1991).
[Crossref]

Porto, S. P.

R. C. C. Leite, S. P. Porto, T. C. Damen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 100 (1967).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper MU4.

Sanchez-Gil, J. A.

J. A. Sanchez-Gil, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1270 (1991).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
[Crossref]

Soileau, M. J.

Swartzlander, G. A.

G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. J. Campillo, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, G. A. Swartzlander, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. G-1.

Umeton, C.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper MU4.

Walter, D. P.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Power Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. D-1.

Xia, T.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper MU4.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. C. C. Leite, S. P. Porto, T. C. Damen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 100 (1967).
[Crossref]

B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1483 (1993).
[Crossref]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, G. Arabia, G. Chidichimo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 896 (1989).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

G. A. Swartzlander, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, C. T. Law, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 577 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Hermann, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1692 (1992).

The thermal figure of merit is defined as (dn/dT)/cp, where dn/dT is the rate of change of the index of refraction with respect to temperature, c is the specific heat, and ρ is the solution density.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Power Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. D-1.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 16 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper MU4.

A. J. Campillo, B. L. Justus, A. L. Huston, G. A. Swartzlander, in Proceedings of the First DoD Workshop on Liquid Cell Limiters, G. P. Meuller, ed., Rep. NRL/MR/6650-92-7139 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1992), Vol. 1, p. G-1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical-limiting experiment. BS, beam splitter; P1, reference energy meter probe; ND, neutral-density filter; EA, 10-mm-diameter entrance aperture; FL, f = 50 mm double-element focusing lens; S, sample cell; IL, f = 50 mm plano–convex imaging lens; CA, 10-mm-diameter collecting aperture; P2, sample energy meter probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal-defocusing/ground-glass scattering limiting data. The transmitted energy versus incident energy is plotted for a limiter constructed with solutions of Nigrosin/CS2 and cell windows separated by a 25-μm-thick Teflon spacer. The open circles are data obtained with BASF-1 ground-glass windows (scattering case), the filled circles are the purely thermal limiting data obtained by use of polished BASF-1 windows (nonscattering case), the solid curve is the system transmission for polished windows, and the dashed curve is the system transmission for ground-glass windows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal-defocusing/microfiber scattering limiting data. The transmitted energy versus incident energy is plotted for a limiter constructed with solutions of Nigrosin/65% CHCl3/35% CS2 and polished cell windows separated by a 50-μm-thick Teflon spacer. The open circles are the data obtained by use of a 50-μm-thick layer of glass microfiber (scattering case), the filled circles are the purely thermal data obtained without microfiber (nonscattering case), and the solid curve is the system transmission for both limiters.

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